Our sports

  • Roller Sports

    Roller sports are sports that use human powered vehicles which use rolling either by gravity or various pushing techniques. Typically ball bearings and polyurethane wheels are used for momentum and traction respectively, and attached to devices or vehicles that the roller puts his weight on. The international governing body is the International Roller Sports Federation (FIRS).

    Learn to Skate with Nadine:

    How to Roller Skate Lesson 1: Falling over, getting up

    How to Roller Skate Lesson 2: Skating & Balancing

    How to Roller Skate Lesson 3: How to Stop

    How to Roller Skate Lesson 4: Gliding & Turning

    How to Roller Skate Lesson 5: Turning corners & going backwards

     

  • Artistic Roller Skating

    ARTISTIC SKATING

    Home / Artistic Skating

    A competitor during Artistic Skating World Championship

    Artistic roller skating is a sport similar to figure skating but where competitors wear roller skates instead of ice skates. Within artistic roller skating there are several disciplines:

    • Figures (similar tocompulsory or “school” figures on ice)
    • Freestyle (individuals performing jumps and spins)
    • Pairs (a subset of freestyle with two people performing jumps, spins, and lifts)
    • Dance (couple)
    • Solo dance
    • Precision (team skating, similar tosynchronized skating on ice)
    • Show teams

    Artistic roller skaters use either quad or inline skates, though quad skates are more traditional and significantly more common. Generally quad and inline skaters compete in separate events and not against each other. Inline figure skating has been included in the world championships since 2002 in Wuppertal, Germany.[1]

    The sport looks very similar to its counterpart on ice, and although there are some differences, many ice skaters started in roller skating or vice versa. Famous champion ice skaters who once competed in roller skating include Brian BoitanoTara Lipinski, and Marina Kielmann. Roller figure skating is often considered to be more difficult because the ice allows the skater to draw a deep, solid edge to push off from when performing jumps such as a lutz or an axel. Also, roller skates are generally heavier than their ice equivalents, making jumping harder; and do not leave behind tracings.

    Artistic

    Roller skating disciplines[edit]

    FIGURES[EDIT]

    In the figures discipline, skaters trace figure circles painted on the skating surface. This is different from skaters of compulsory figures on ice, who skate on blank ice, and draw their own circles on the ice as they skate. The official dimension of plain figure circles, measured at their diameter along the long axis, is 6 meters (19 feet, 8¼ inches). The official dimension of the smaller loop figure circles measured similarly is 2.4 meters (7 feet, 10½ inches). Circles are typically painted in “serpentines”—sets of three circular lobes.

    The basic figures skated are typically referred to by numbers, the same as those skated by ice skaters, ranging from simple circle eights through serpentines (figures using one push for a circle and a half), paragraphs (figures using one push for two circles), and loops (smaller circles with a teardrop-shaped loop skated at the top of the circle). There is one category of very simple figures (111 and 112) that are unique to roller skaters; these are serpentines that begin with a half circle skated on one foot, then change to the other foot, for the next circle, then change back to the other foot for another half circle. Some of the more basic figures are numbered 1, 2, 1B, 5A, 5B, 7A, 7B, 111A, 111B, 112A, and 112B, in which the letter B means you start on your left foot. These figures are often taught as beginning figures for those just starting. They include simple circle eights, circle eights with [three turns], and serpentines. The harder figures include counters, brackets, rockers, etc. and they are number 19, 21, 22, 26, etc.

    Judges in figure events consider the quality of the skater’s tracing of the circle, clean takeoffs, edges and correct placement of turns. The skater’s form and posture is emphasized as well.

    DANCE[EDIT]

    Dance roller skating contains three major sub-disciplines: Compulsory dance, original dance, and free dance.

    Compulsory dance contains prescribed compulsory dances and steps that must be performed, such as the Imperial Tango, the14 Stepthe Keats Foxtrot , or the Flirtation Waltz. Some of the dances are the same as performed in ice dancing competition, while others are unique to roller skating.

    Dance

    American Dance is performed only at the United States National level and below, and emphasizes keeping the upper body upright and free from movement. Some examples of American dances are the Fascination FoxtrotProgressive Tango, and theCalifornia Swing.

    Original Dance consists of a dance constructed of two rhythms chosen from a set of rhythms that FIRS changes every year . In 2008 the set rhythms were “Spanish Melody” ( Paso DobleFlamencoTango, and Spanish Waltz ).

    Free Dance is similar to the ice free dance, although with some rules changes. Skaters do not need to follow a pattern around the floor, but rather must be creative in their interpretation of the music. Dancers cannot do any jumps or spins that are recognizable in freestyle skating.

    Solo Dance incorporates all three sub-disciplines. Compulsory dances generally utilise the female steps as these are usually more difficult then the male steps. Original dance is referred to as Creative Solo Dance or CSD, and free dance incorporates up to two spins with no more than 3 revolutions and up to two jumps of no more than 1 revolution.

    FREESTYLE SKATING[EDIT]

    Executing a jump, video, 12 seconds

    Artistic freestyle skating incorporates figure skating jumps, spins, and footwork into a program set to music. Most of the jumps done by freestyle roller skaters are similar to those performed in ice skating, with some nomenclature changed. A “toe loop” on ice is often referred to as a Mapes in roller skating, taking its name from the inventor of the jump. Though both ice and roller skaters perform the Euler jump (called a “half-loop” by ice skaters and some roller skaters), it is more common in roller skating programs, as lengthy multi-jump combinations are emphasized in roller skating judging. The Euler is a useful connecting jump in such sequences; for example, a five-jump combination might be Axel, loop, double Mapes, Euler, double flip. The hardest part of a five jump combination is usually keeping up enough speed to complete the fifth jump, which can sometimes be the most technically difficult. the “loop” jump is also performed in roller skating, though ice skaters tend to “take off” with two feet, roller skaters do a one-foot take off.

    Roller skating also traditionally emphasizes spins that are uncommon on ice, especially the inverted camel in which the skater is on an outside edge standing on the right foot with their body and left leg extended outward parallel to the floor, the skater then rotates their hips 180 degrees while continuing to spin so that they are spinning upside down [1] (of course this could also be performed on the left.) The inverted camel is generally performed by women – few men learn to do it and even fewer perform it in competition. Other spins popular in roller skating that would be impossible to do with the blades of an ice skate include the broken ankle, which begins as an inside-edge camel and the skater then pushes the skate over so that the spin is rotating on the edge of the two inner wheels, and the heel camel spin, which is only rotated on the back two wheels, or heel.

    PRECISION[EDIT]

    Precision Roller Skating is a large and fast-growing, yet little recognized discipline, consisting of 12-24 athletes skating on the floor at one time moving as one flowing unit at high speeds. This discipline of Precision Skating is named because of the emphasis on maintaining precise formations and timing of the group.

    For a precision team to flow in unison, individual skaters must be competent at a variety of skating skills, including speed, footwork and presentation. The team performs a program set to music, with required formations including circles, lines, blocks, wheels, and intersections. The teams are required to perform difficult step sequences involving a number of complicated turns.

    There are international synchronized skating competitions at the Senior level, and the Federation Internationale de Roller Sports (FIRS) held the first World Championship in Precision Roller Skating in 2000. Teams may consist of men and women with Senior Teams having 12-24 team members and Junior Teams having 8-16 team members. Two scores are given, one for technical and one for artistic impression.

    Precision Roller Skating owes its origin to Synchronized skating on ice. The first synchronized figure skating team was formed by Dr. Richard Porter, who became known as the ‘father of synchronized skating’. The ‘Hockettes’ skated out of Ann Arbor, Michigan and entertained spectators during the intermissions of the University ofMichigan Wolverines men’s ice hockey team. In the early days, precision skating resembled a drill team routine, or a precision dance company such as The Rockettes.

    During the 1970s, the interest for this new sport spawned tremendous growth and development. In each season, teams developed more creative and innovative routines incorporating stronger basic skating skills, new maneuvers and more sophisticated transitions with greater speed, style and agility. Due to the interest in the sport in North America, other countries took notice, leading to the World Championships. With the internationalization of the sport, it has evolved rapidly, with increasing emphasis on speed and skating skills.

    Although not currently an Olympic sport, fans and participants of this fast-growing discipline have begun to strive for recognition by the rest of the athletic world. Precision Roller Skating has been covered by Roller Skating and the USARS magazine since the sport’s inception. It is a varsity sport at a few colleges, and both Precision Roller Skating and its ice counterpart are being reviewed for Olympic eligibility.

    Equipment[edit]

    SKATES[EDIT]

    Artistic roller skaters most commonly skate on traditional quad skates. Skates designed for artistic skating typically have leather boots, a strong sole plate, and a jump bar for reinforcement. The plate has to be made from a strong material as it has to be able to withstand the shock of jumping and landing. Artistic roller skates usually have stainless steel or aluminum plates for that reason, even though these are heavier than ones made from other materials such as plastic. Free skaters usually use a toe stop, which can be used in the take-off in certain jumps such as the Mapes or the flip. Dance skaters substitute toe plugs, as the large toe stops are cumbersome when performing dance footwork. Figure skaters generally have specially made plates for figure skating which have no receptacle for the toe stop.

    Some artistic skaters use inline skates. Skates designed for inline artistic skating have leather boots (as ice and quad figure skates do), and usually have rockered wheels and a toe stop or toe “pic”. Rockered wheels (wheels which are arranged at different heights so that the baseline of the wheels forms a curve instead of a flat line) are more suitable to skate the curved “edges” which are typical of artistic skating than un-rockered inline wheels are.

    ROLLER SKATE WHEELS AND BEARINGS[EDIT]

    Roller skate wheels come in many different sizes and hardnesses. Typically a 62mm wheel is used for dance, 60mm to 63mm used for figures, and a smaller 57mm wheel used for freestyle. The hardness of the wheel determines the grip or slip of the wheel. Normally a harder wheel having more slip is used for turn figures. A softer wheel with more grip is used for dance. Freestyle skaters tend to use both on the skates, using a harder wheel on the edge they need to spin and a softer wheel on the other edges. Typically 7mm bearings are used because competitive artistic skates have a smaller axle. Most inline skates use a 8mm bearing. The abec rating determines the tolerances in the bearing and most people can use an Abec3; however, most people believe the extra cost of Abec 7 or 9 bearings is worth paying for a better bearing. There are also other kinds of bearings such as Swiss Bones, which are also a very high quality.

    See also[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. Jump up^2002 results

    External links[edit]

  • Inline Hockey

    INLINE HOCKEY

    Home / Inline hockey

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediainline

     

    Roller in-line hockey
    A collegiate inline hockey player carrying the puck.
    Highestgoverning body USA Roller Sports
    First played 20th century United States
    Characteristics
    Contact Yes
    Team members 5 per side (including goaltender)
    Mixed gender Yes, separate competitions
    Type Team sport
    Equipment Inline hockey puck, hockey stick, inline skates, hockey helmet, elbow pads, inline hockey pants, jock (or jill for women), shin pads, mouth guard, hockey jersey, hockey gloves
    Venue Inline hockey arena
    Presence
    Country or region Worldwide
    Olympic No

    In-line hockey, commonly referred to as roller hockey, is a team sport played on a wood, asphalt, cement or sport tile surface, in which players use a hockey stick to shoot a hard plastic hockey puck into their opponent’s goal to score points.[1] It is considered a contact sport but body checking is prohibited. Inline hockey teams are composed of up to four lines of players including two forwards and two defensemen on each line. There are five players including the goalie from each team on the rink at a time. It is the goalies job to prevent the other team’s players from scoring. Teams normally consist of 16 players that sit on the bench until it is their turn to play.[2] As the name suggests it is played on inline skates.

    Inline hockey is a very fast paced and free flowing game, this is because it does not have the same rules as ice hockey. There are no blue lines or defensive zones in roller hockey unlike ice hockey. This means that, according to most rule codes, there are no offsides or icings that can occur during game play; this along with fewer players on the rink allows for faster game play.[3] There are traditionally two 20-minute periods or four 10-minute periods with a stopped clock.

    The highest governing body for the sport is USA Roller Sports which is commonly referred to as USARS. USARS is credited with the development of the present day rules and regulations that is used throughout multiple tournament series. They organize tournaments across the United States but they are not the only tournament provider. Some of the other independent tournament providers include Amateur Athletic Union, North American Roller Championships, and the Torhs 2 Hot 4 Ice tournament series.[4]

    Contents

    [hide]

    History[edit]

    Some of the earliest video evidence of the sport is newsreel footage from the Giornale Luce taken in ViennaAustria in 1938.[5] The video shows players using inline skates with five metal wheels and a front wheel brake. Each team has four skaters plus a netminder. They are using ice hockey sticks, with taped blades, and the goals closely resemble ice hockey goals of the wire-mesh type common in Europe around that time. The game is being played with a ball on a rectangular outdoor court, which appears to be asphalt.

    In the United States, the USA Roller Sports (USARS) predecessor organization was the Roller Skating Rink Operators Association (RSROA). In 1940 the RSROA published a set of roller hockey rules drawn from a booklet by the National Hockey League (NHL) which was designed to grow interest in playing hockey on roller skates. However, because of the intervention of World War II, the organization of roller hockey tournaments did not receive significant development until after this war in the late 1940s. At first skating club interest was confined to the northern tier of the United States, including the bordering Canadian cities. Puck roller hockey’s spread in popularity during that period was helped along by the attention of local commercial television, which was getting its start and in desperate need for events to fill air time. The increased interest in the sport led in 1959 to the selection of a National Puck Hockey Committee to formulate special rules for the performance of puck hockey in the variety of rink sizes available to roller skates. The American Roller Hockey Association (ARHA) was formed with Joe Spillman, a roller rink operator from San AntonioTexas as its first Commissioner. Under Spillman’s direction, the sport of hockey on roller skates grew rapidly throughout the United States.

    During the 1960 RSROA National Roller Skating Championships held in Little RockArkansas, exhibition games for ball and puck roller hockey were held. Following these Nationals, the first full competitive season officially began in North America for roller hockey. This, of course, had puck roller hockey entirely performed on quad skates, for at that time there were no in-line skates available. State and Regional competitions determined the teams that would move on to the North American Championships.

    In 1962 at Pershing Auditorium in LincolnNebraska both Ball and Puck Hockey took part in the North American Championships, with the Arcadia Wildcats from Detroit,Michigan becoming the first Puck Hockey national champions on quad skates. Inline skates were not commercially available during that era.

    On 1 September 1965, during their semi-annual board meeting, the RSROA installed puck hockey as an equal and separate division of roller hockey, which included ball hockey, a format most popular in Europe and South America. It was decided that both ball and puck hockey would compete under the same rules and award separate gold medal winners. Budd Van Roekel, RSROA president, was quoted in the January 1965 issue of Skate Magazine“We believe this move will spark further growth of our roller hockey program. While we recognize the popularity of the international ball-and-cane version of hockey, we also realize that thousands of potential United States and Canadian players are more familiar with the Canadian stick-and-puck type sport. We see no reason why the two versions of the sport cannot grow side by side.”

    The 1966 North American Championships marked the return of puck hockey after a four-year hiatus. The final game was a nail biter and the crowd appreciated the fast pace and excitement of puck hockey. The final game was between the Canadians of WindsorOntario and the Wildcats of Detroit, Michigan, the defending champions from 1962. The score seesawed between the two teams and was finally decided in favor of the Canadians with a final score of 5 to 3. The win gave the Canadian team their only gold medal for the whole North American Championships. One Canadian team player was quoted in the 1966 Fall issue of Skate Magazine, “We simply had to win the (puck) hockey championships, otherwise our fathers wouldn’t allow us to return home.”

    Another milestone occurred for puck roller hockey in 1977, when the North American Puck Hockey Championship was held in a venue away from ball hockey for the first time. The 1977 puck championships were staged in HoustonTexas to large crowds and a great amount of publicity, as fourteen newspapers and television stations covered the event. The year 1977 was also a milestone for women with this championship marking the debut of a women’s hockey national championship.

    TRANSITION FROM QUADS TO INLINE[EDIT]

    The very first inline roller hockey team to earn a USA National Championship title did so at a USA Roller Sports National Championship held in San Diego in July 1993. At the previous 1992 USARS National Championships, also staged in San Diego, the San Diego Hosers won the Senior Gold Division title wearing their customary quad roller skates. As of that time, the Hosers manager/coach Paul Chapey felt that while inline skates were obviously faster, the advantage was to quad skates because of their assumed greater maneuverability. Some teams and individual players at the 1992 Nationals had been equipped with inline skates, but perhaps had not yet mastered their new vehicles. During the ensuing year, Paul Chapey became an inline convert and the San Diego Hosers came back to the USAC/RS Nationals in 1993 entirely on inline skates and recaptured their national title. This significant event took place at least a year before all the other major roller inline hockey organizations were even in existence, including National Inline Hockey Association (NIHA), USA Hockey InLineNorth American Roller Hockey Championships(NARCh) and American Inline Roller Hockey Series (AIRHS).

    USA Roller Sports, under the auspices of Fédération Internationale de Roller Sports (FIRS), established and hosted the first World Inline Roller Hockey Championships for men at the Odeum Arena in Villa ParkIllinois (a suburb of Chicago) in 1995. USA Roller Sports established the first Inline Hockey World Championships for Juniors, again in Chicago in 1996, following the USA National Championships. The first World Inline Hockey Championships for Women occurred under sponsorship of USA Roller Sports in RochesterNew York in 2002. Since the introduction of these events, FIRS National Federations around the world have annually perpetuated inline world championships. USA (Ice) Hockey and International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF) began their men’s InLine Hockey World Championship in 1996, after the first such world championship by FIRS and has yet to organize a women’s inline hockey world tournament or one for juniors.

    In March 2002, the United States Olympic Committee (USOC) Membership and Credentials Committee officially reaffirmed that USA Roller Sports as the governing body for inline hockey in the United States, which continues to this day. This determination was based on a conclusion by the USOC that internationally the sport of inline hockey is recognized as a discipline of roller sports. Then, as now, USA Roller Sports is a member in good standing of Federation International de Roller Sports (“FIRS”), the international federation for roller sports as recognized by the International Olympic Committee, and FIRS is also recognized by the Pan American Sports Organization (PASO) as the controlling international federation for inline hockey, a sport of the Pan American Games.

    Inline roller hockey was introduced to the World Games for the first time in 2005, an International Olympic Committee (IOC) sanctioned event under the jurisdiction of the International World Games Association (IWGA), an affiliate of the General Association of International Sports Federations (GAISF). The United States won the Gold Medal, with Canada taking the Silver and Switzerland the Bronze Medal. Inline roller hockey replaced rink hockey (ball and cane) on the World Games program forDuisburgGermany at the 2005 quadrennial World Games. Rink roller hockey had been part of the World Games since its first organization in 1979 at Santa Clara,California, as have the other disciplines of roller sports.

    During the General Assembly of the IWGA, which took place in Madrid on 14 May 2003, the IWGA unanimously agreed that inline roller hockey was the responsibility of FIRS and that this variant form of roller hockey would be included on the program of the 2005 World Games in place of the previous format. This same scenario had previously played out before the Pan American Sports Organization in 1999, when inline hockey made its first appearance at the Pan American Games in Canada, and repeated again four years later in the Dominican Republic. PASO extends continued recognition of the inline hockey under the jurisdiction of FIRS.

    PROFESSIONAL INLINE HOCKEY[EDIT]

    National Roller Hockey League is a professional league, founded in 2014. The NRHL began its inaugural season 20 February 2015. The NRHL games consist of 3 15-minute periods, with 10 minute intermissions. It differs from professional ice hockey with rules like no fighting, no offsides, and no icing. The players in the NRHL pay nothing to play, with compensation opportunities available in the inaugural season.[6]

    MLRH (Major League Roller Hockey), is played in the United States and Europe. It consists of East and West Coast divisions, and the season is played from October to March with finals being held in either Europe or the USA. This is the only full check inline league in the world and it has a $10,000 championship purse. It has similar rules as the NHL, with some exceptions and only having two 17 min periods and in the “Super” League, 4 x 12 minute quarters. MLRH has offside and icing rules as well as allowing players to have a single fight per game.

    JUNIOR INLINE HOCKEY[EDIT]

    There are no junior leagues for the sport of inline hockey in the USA except for NAYRHL (North America Youth Roller Hockey League). In Ontario, Canada, they have The GLi (Great Lakes Inline) which is similar to the OHL of ice hockey and is also 21 and under. For the Junior “A” equivalent in the USA, see the American Inline Hockey League minor division. Some schools and Townships might also have leagues.

    Chief differences from ice hockey[edit]

    Although inline hockey appears, at first glance, to simply be ice hockey on inline skates, this single change ramifies through the rest of the game, resulting in important differences between the two sports.

    Inline hockey is typically played at room temperature on a surface that, rather than being made from (frozen) water, is kept dry to protect the bearings in the skate wheels. Several surface materials are used, including plastic tiles (sometimes known as sport-court flooring), wood, and sealed concrete; in general, surfaces try to balance the ability of wheels to grip against the ability of the puck to slide freely. None of these surfaces, however, are as smooth as ice; as a result, the puck is made of a much lighter plastic material, and rests on small nylon or poly-plastic nubs to reduce friction with the rink surface.

    Besides these equipment differences, inline hockey is generally a less physical sport. Most leagues punish fighting harshly, and body checking is usually a penalty. Leagues generally require players to wear full face masks, but otherwise, players tend to wear lighter clothes and less protective padding.

    There are other rules differences as well. Each team fields only four skaters (plus a goaltender), rather than ice hockey’s five. Many leagues do not stop play for icing. Offside rules are generally looser as well; originally, a few leagues would call offside only on the center line, presently, every rule book omits the rule entirely.

    Equipment[edit]

    Main article: Inline hockey equipment

    Inline hockey is a contact sport. Although body checks are usually not allowed, injuries can still be a common occurrence. Protective equipment is highly recommended and is enforced in all competitive situations. This usually includes a helmet (cage worn if certain age), elbow pads, protective gloves, athletic cup, shin pads, and skates at the very least. In addition, goaltenders use different gear, (optionally) a neck guard, chest/arm protector, blocker, catch glove, and leg pads.

    Goal Cages[edit]

    One of the most fundamental differences between the IIHF and FIRS-sanctioned versions of inline hockey lies within the dimensions of the net. The IIHF simply retains the use of ice hockey nets. However the FIRS rulebook substitutes the traditional ice hockey cage for a lower and narrower model patterned after the one used in rink hockey, the FIRS’ flagship sport, however most FIRS leagues in the United States and Canada opt for the more popular and common ice hockey nets.

    Game[edit]

    While the general characteristics of the game are the same wherever it is played, the exact rules depend on the particular code of play being used. The most important code is that of the Comité International Roller In-Line Hockey (CIRILH), an organization and discipline of the Fédération Internationale de Roller Sports (FIRS)[7]

    Inline hockey is played on an inline hockey rink. During normal play, there are five players per side on the floor at any time, one of them being the goaltender, each of whom is on inline hockey skates. The objective of the game is to score goals by shooting a hard plastic disc, the puck, into the opponent’s goal net, which is placed at the opposite end of the rink. The players may control the puck using a long stick with a blade that is commonly curved at one end.

    Players may also redirect the puck with any part of their bodies, subject to certain restrictions. Players may not hold the puck in their hand and are prohibited from using their hands to pass the puck to their teammates, unless they are in the defensive zone. Players are also prohibited from kicking the puck into the opponent’s goal, though unintentional redirections off the skate are permitted. Players may not intentionally bat the puck into the net with their hands.

    The four players other than the goaltender are typically divided into two forwards and two defencemen. The forward positions consist of a center and a winger. Thedefencemen usually stay together as a pair generally divided between left and right. A substitution of an entire unit at once is called a line change. Teams typically employ alternate sets of forward lines and defensive pairings when shorthanded or on a power play. Substitutions are permitted at any time during the course of the game, although during a stoppage of play the home team is permitted the final change. When players are substituted during play, it is called changing on the fly.

    The boards surrounding the floor help keep the puck in play and they can also be used as tools to play the puck. Players are not permitted to “bodycheck” opponents into the boards as a means of stopping progress. The referees and the outsides of the goal are “in play” and do not cause a stoppage of the game when the puck or players are influenced (by either bouncing or colliding) into them. Play can be stopped if the goal is knocked out of position. Play often proceeds for minutes without interruption. When play is stopped, it is restarted with a faceoff. Two players “face” each other and an official drops the puck to the floor, where the two players attempt to gain control of the puck. Markings on the floor indicate the locations for the “faceoff” and guide the positioning of players.

    There is one major rule of play in inline hockey that limit the movement of the puck: the puck going out of play. The puck goes “out of play” whenever it goes past the perimeter of the rink (onto the player benches, over the “glass,” or onto the protective netting above the glass) and a stoppage of play is called by the officials using whistles. It also does not matter if the puck comes back onto the playing surface from those areas as the puck is considered dead once it leaves the perimeter of the rink.

    Under FIRS rules, each team may carry a maximum of 14 players and two goaltenders on their roster. The players are usually divided into three lines of two forwards, two pairs of defenceman, and two extra skaters.

    Penalties[edit]

    Main article: Penalty (ice hockey)

    For most penalties, the offending player is sent to the “penalty box” and his team has to play with one less skater for a short amount of time. Minor penalties last for two minutes, major penalties last for five minutes, and a double minor penalty is two consecutive penalties of two minutes duration. A single Minor penalty may be extended by a further two minutes for drawing blood from the victimized player. The team that has taken the penalty is said to be playing shorthanded while the other team is on apower play.

    A two-minute minor penalty is often called for lesser infractions such as trippingelbowingroughinghigh-stickingdelay of the gametoo many players on the rink,boarding, illegal equipment, holding, interference, hookingslashing, butt-ending (striking an opponent with the knob of the stick—a very rare penalty) or cross-checking. A minor is also assessed for diving, where a player embellishes a hook or trip. More egregious fouls may be penalized by a four-minute double-minor penalty, particularly those which cause injury to the victimized player. These penalties end either when the time runs out or the other team scores on the power play. In the case of a goal scored during the first two minutes of a double-minor, the penalty clock is set down to two minutes upon a score effectively expiring the first minor penalty. Five-minute major penalties are called for especially violent instances of most minor infractions that result in intentional injury to an opponent, or when a “minor” penalty results in visible injury (such as bleeding), as well as for fighting. Major penalties are always served in full; they do not terminate on a goal scored by the other team.

    Some varieties of penalties do not always require the offending team to play a man short. Concurrent five-minute major penalties in the FIRS usually result from fighting. In the case of two players being assessed five-minute fighting majors, they both serve five minutes without their team incurring a loss of player (both teams still have a full complement of players on the floor). This differs with two players from opposing sides getting minor penalties, at the same time or at any intersecting moment, resulting from more common infractions. In that case, both teams will have only three skating players (not counting the goaltender) until one or both penalties expire (if one expires before the other, the opposing team gets a power play for the remainder); this applies regardless of current pending penalties, though in the FIRS, a team always has at least two skaters on the rink. Ten-minute misconduct penalties are served in full by the penalized player, but his team may immediately substitute another player on the floor unless a minor or major penalty is assessed in conjunction with the misconduct (a two-and-ten or five-and-ten). In that case, the team designates another player to serve the minor or major; both players go to the penalty box, but only the designee may not be replaced, and he is released upon the expiration of the two or five minutes, at which point the ten-minute misconduct begins. In addition, game misconducts are assessed for deliberate intent to inflict severe injury on an opponent (at the officials’ discretion), or for a major penalty for a stick infraction or repeated major penalties. The offending player is ejected from the game and must immediately leave the playing surface (he does not sit in the penalty box); meanwhile, if a minor or major is assessed in addition, a designated player must serve out that segment of the penalty in the box (similar to the above-mentioned “two-and-ten”). In some rare cases, a player may receive up to nineteen minutes in penalties for one string of plays. This could involve receiving a four-minute double minor penalty, getting in a fight with an opposing player who retaliates, and then receiving a game misconduct after the fight. In this case, the player is ejected and two teammates must serve the double-minor and major penalties.

    A player who is tripped, or illegally obstructed in some way, by an opponent on a breakaway – when there are no defenders except the goaltender between him and the opponent’s goal – is awarded a penalty shot, an attempt to score without opposition from any defenders except the goaltender. A penalty shot is also awarded for a defender other than the goaltender covering the puck in the goal crease, a goaltender intentionally displacing his own goal posts during a breakaway to avoid a goal, a defender intentionally displacing his own goal posts when there is less than two minutes to play in regulation time or at any point during overtime, or a player or coach intentionally throwing a stick or other object at the puck or the puck carrier and the throwing action disrupts a shot or pass play.

    Officials also stop play for puck movement violations, such as using one’s hands to pass the puck in the offensive end, but no players are penalized for these offenses. The sole exceptions are deliberately falling on or gathering the puck to the body, carrying the puck in the hand, and shooting the puck out of play in one’s defensive zone (all penalized two minutes for delay of game).

    Officials[edit]

    Main article: Official (ice hockey)

    A typical game of inline hockey has two officials on the floor, charged with enforcing the rules of the game. There are typically two referees who call goals and penalties. Due to not having offside and icing violations, there usually are no linesmen used. On-ice officials are assisted by off-ice officials who act as time keepers, and official scorers.

    Officials are selected by the league for which they work. Amateur hockey leagues use guidelines established by national organizing bodies as a basis for choosing their officiating staffs. In North America, the national organizing bodies USA Roller Sports and Canada Inline approve officials according to their experience level as well as their ability to pass rules knowledge and skating ability tests.

    Tactics[edit]

    OFFENSIVE TACTICS[EDIT]

    Main articles: Shot (hockey)SlapshotWrist shotSnap shot (ice hockey)Backhand slapshot and Extra attacker

    Offensive tactics include improving a team’s position on the floor by advancing the puck towards the opponent’s goal. FIRS rules have no offside or two-line passes. A player may pass the puck to a player on any spot on the floor. Offensive tactics, are designed ultimately to score a goal by taking a shot. When a player purposely directs the puck towards the opponent’s goal, he or she is said to “shoot” the puck.

    deflection is a shot which redirects a shot or a pass towards the goal from another player, by allowing the puck to strike the stick and carom towards the goal. A one-timer is a shot which is struck directly off a pass, without receiving the pass and shooting in two separate actions. Headmanning the puck, also known as cherry-picking, the stretch pass or breaking out, is the tactic of rapidly passing to the player farthest down the floor.

    A team that is losing by one or two goals in the last few minutes of play will often elect to pull the goalie; that is, remove the goaltender and replace him or her with anextra attacker on the floor in the hope of gaining enough advantage to score a goal. However, it is an act of desperation, as it sometimes leads to the opposing team extending their lead by scoring a goal in the empty net.

    delayed penalty call occurs when a penalty offense is committed by the team that does not have possession of the puck. In this circumstance the team with possession of the puck is allowed to complete the play; that is, play continues until a goal is scored, a player on the opposing team gains control of the puck, or the team in possession commits an infraction or penalty of their own. Because the team on which the penalty was called cannot control the puck without stopping play, it is impossible for them to score a goal, however, it is possible for the controlling team to mishandle the puck into their own net. In these cases the team in possession of the puck can pull the goalie for an extra attacker without fear of being scored on. If a delayed penalty is signaled and the team in possession scores, the penalty is still assessed to the offending player, but not served.

    One of the most important strategies for a team is their forecheck. Forechecking is the act of attacking the opposition in their defensive zone. Forechecking is an important part of roller hockey, because certain leagues and rules allow teams that have possession of the puck to sit behind their net and wait until they are pressured before having to advance the puck. Each team will use their own unique forecheck system but the main ones are: 1–1–2, 1–2–1, and 1–3. The 1–1–2 is the most basic forecheck system where one forward will go in deep and pressure the opposition’s defencemen, the second forward stays in the slot, and the two defencemen high. The 1–3 is the most defensive forecheck system where one forward will apply pressure to the puck carrier in the opponent’s zone and the other three players stand basically in a line in their defensive zone in hopes the opposition will skate into one of them.

    Roller hockey is unique in that its rules resemble more of a basketball/soccer/lacrosse strategy in many ways versus a traditional ice hockey approach.

    There are many other little tactics used in the game of hockey. Pinching is the term used when a defencemen pressures the opposition’s winger in the offensive zone when they are breaking out, attempting to stop their attack and keep the puck in the offensive zone. A saucer pass is a pass used when an opposition’s stick or body is in the passing lane. It is the act of raising the puck over the obstruction and having it land on a teammates’ stick.

    DEKE[EDIT]

    Main article: Deke (ice hockey)

    A “deke,” short for “decoy,” is a feint with the body and/or stick to fool a defender or the goalie. Due to the increased room and lack of body checking, many inline hockey players have picked up the skill of “dangling,” which is more fancy deking and requires more stick handling skills. Some of the more impressive “dekes” or “dangles” include the toe-drag, the Pavel Datsyuk, the back hand toe-drag, and the spin-o-rama.

    FIGHTS[EDIT]

    Fighting is prohibited in the rules. It does happen rarely, however. Players used to an ice hockey mentality fight to demoralize the opposing players while exciting their own, as well as settling personal scores. A fight will also break if one of the team’s skilled players gets hit hard or someone gets hit by what the team perceives as a dirty hit. Amateur recreation level players who play strictly inline hockey never consider fisticuffs a legitimate behavior. The amateur game penalizes fisticuffs more harshly, as a player who receives a fighting major is also assessed at least a 10-minute misconduct penalty or a game misconduct penalty and suspension. Most local recreation leagues also suspend or ban players who engage in fights.

    Periods and overtime[edit]

    A professional game consists of two halves of twenty minutes each, the clock running only when the puck is in play. The teams change ends for the second half, and again at the start of each overtime played (playoffs only; same ends as the second half otherwise). Some leagues such as the American Inline Hockey League (AIHL), recreational leagues and children’s leagues often play shorter games, generally with two shorter periods or three running clock periods of play.

    Various procedures are used if a game is tied. Some leagues and tournaments do not use an overtime, unless a “winner” must be determined, such as in tournamentpool play and league regular season. Others will us either one, or a combination of; sudden death overtime periods, or penalty shootouts. Usually up to two 5-minutesudden death overtimes are played; if still tied, penalty shootouts.

    Playing surface[edit]

    Indoor inline hockey is played on any suitable non-slip surface. While converted roller rinks may use wooden floors, dedicated inline hockey facilities use Sport Court or similar surface, which allows maximum traction to inline hockey wheels whilst providing a smooth, unbroken gliding surface for the puck. The playing area should be surrounded by full boards similar to ice hockey with glass or fencing to a height of around 2m. Often, especially in European countries, the game is played in indoor sports halls, on wooden floors. Therefore, there will be no standardized boards but instead the perimeter of the playing surface will be brick walls. In such cases, the corners of the hall are rounded off with added curved boards.

    Inline sledge hockey[edit]

    Main article: Sledge hockey

    Based on Ice Sledge Hockey, Inline Sledge Hockey is played to the same rules as Inline Puck Hockey (essentially ice hockey played off ice using inline skates) and has been made possible by the design and manufacture of inline sledges by RGK, Europe’s premier sports wheelchair maker.

    There is no classification points system dictating who can be involved in play within Inline Sledge Hockey unlike other team sports such as Wheelchair Basketball and Wheelchair Rugby. Inline Sledge Hockey is being developed to allow everyone, regardless of whether they have a disability or not, to complete up to World Championship level based solely on talent and ability. This makes Inline Sledge Hockey truly inclusive.

    The first game of Inline Sledge Hockey was played at Bisley, England on 19 December 2009 between the Hull Stingrays and the Grimsby Redwings. Matt Lloyd (Paralympian) is credited with inventing Inline Sledge Hockey and Great Britain is seen as the international leader in the games development.

    STREET HOCKEY[EDIT]

    Main article: Street hockey

    Street hockey is a form of inline hockey played as pick-up hockey on streets or parking lots. Street hockey tends to have very relaxed rules, as any pickup street game or sport would have.

    BLIND INLINE HOCKEY[EDIT]

    Blind Inline Hockey is also played by athletes who are totally blind or visually impaired. Sighted players can also play, as all players must play while wearing opaque goggles, making all play sightless and “evening the playing field.” The blind game is best played on a smaller, cross-floor sized surface (85′ by 60′) with the same 4 skaters-and-a-goalie as regular sighted inline hockey.

    The puck and goals each have a sounding device that enable the players to hear the puck and orient themselves to direction on the playing surface. The players constantly communicate to their teammates regarding their actions and positions on the floor enabling teamwork and playmaking. A sighted referee directs stoppages and restarts. All usual inline hockey rules apply to blind play.

    Sanctioning bodies[edit]

    There are two lines of sanctioning bodies for inline hockey: those that are related to the roller sports community and those related to the ice hockey community. TheInternational Ice Hockey Federation organizes IIHF Inline Hockey World Championships but the sport is recognized as being governed by the International Roller Sports Federation which organizes FIRS Inline Hockey World Championships.

    USA Roller Sports is sanctioned by the International Olympic Committee to oversee roller sports. See the related links below for national bodies and further information.

    Worldwide

    ·         IIHF Inline

    ·         Fédération Internationale de Roller Sports (FIRS)

    Argentina

    ·         Confederacion Argentina de Patin (CAP)

    Australia

    ·         Skate Australia

    Belgium

    ·         Belgian In-Line Hockey Federation

    Brazil

    ·         Brazil Hockey and Skating Confederation

    Canada

    ·         Metro Vancouver Roller Hockey League (MVRHL) – Greater Vancouver BC

    ·         National Inline Hockey Association (NIHA-National Governing Body) Canada

    ·         British Columbia Inline Hockey Association (BCIHA – BC Provincial Body) BC

    ·         The Hockey House – Langley BC

    ·         Vancouver Inline Hockey League (VIHL) – BC

    ·         Green Light Adventures Inline Hockey League in Chilliwack, BC Canada

    ·         Pacific Inline Championship Hockey League (PICH)

    ·         Alberta Minor Roller Hockey Association (AMRHA – Alberta Provincial Body) AB

    ·         Edmonton Inline Hockey League (EIHL) – Edmonton AB

    ·         Nipissing Inline Hockey League

    ·         Toronto Inline Hockey League (Toronto Inline)

    ·         Canada Inline (Junior National Governing Body) Canada

    ·         The official Roller Hockey Site in Quebec

    Czech Republic

    ·         Czech Asociacion Inline Hockey

    Chile

    ·         Chile Inline Hockey Federation

    Ecuador

    ·         Ecuador Hockey League

    France

    ·         French Inline Hockey Federation

    Hong Kong/China

    ·         Hong Kong/China inline Hockey Association

    Ireland

    ·         Irish Ice Hockey Association

    ·         Inline Hockey Ireland

  • Inline Freestyle

    INLINE FREESTYLE SKATING

    Home / Inline Freestyle skating

    Inline Freestyle skating is a form of inline skating performed on flatland and refers collectively to the disciplines for which competitions are organized by the International Freestyle Skaters Association.[1] Currently the IFSA has defined three disciplines which must be offered by any competition they sanction: freestyle slalom, speed slalom, and free jump. Two additional disciplines, high jump and jam, are also defined, but are at present considered optional.

    INLINE FREESTYLE SLALOM SKATINGfreestyle

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Freestyle skaters in action at Les Invalides, Paris

    Freestyle slalom skating is a highly technical field of skating that involves performing tricks around a straight line of equally spaced cones. The most common spacing used in competitions is 80cm, with larger competitions also featuring lines spaced at 50cm and 120cm.[1]

    Contents

    Equipment

    Most freestyle slalomers use inline skates although some use quad skates. Those who use inline skates tend to use a full rocker wheel configuration, however there are variations of the rockers which are used. Some skaters prefer to use a ‘full hi-lo’ rocker, which means the largest wheel is the second in from the back, with the smallest at the front. A short frame (230–245 mm)is used to give them the maximum possible maneuverability. The inline skates are very tight with a very strong cuff, to give sustaining ankle support. Popular skates used to include the FSK skate range by Salomon, now unavailable, the market is now dominated arguably by Seba skates, formed by a world class slalom skater, and other brands such as Powerslide and RollerBlade.

    List of slalom moves[edit]lis

    A competitor competing in the IFSA finals.

    The list of basic moves from easiest to hardest. There are many more moves than the ones shown in the list, and many variations on how to complete each move. The names of these moves may differ between countries.

    Basic

    • Forwards Parallel (Fish)
    • Forwards Monoline (Snake)
    • Forwards Criss-Cross
    • Alternating Forwards Cross
    • Double Cross
    • Forwards One Foot

    Beginner

    • Backwards Monoline (Snake)
    • Backwards Criss-Cross
    • Backwards Parallel (Fish)
    • Forwards Heel-Toe Snake
    • Forwards Heel-Toe Criss-Cross
    • Forwards Toe-Toe Snake
    • Forwards Heel-Heel Snake
    • Forwards Shifted Cross
    • Backwards Shifted Cross
    • Eagle
    • Eagle Cross (Independent)
    • Eagle Shifted Cross (Wave)
    • Eagle Royal
    • Eagle Royal Cross
    • Reverse Eagle
    • Reverse Eagle Criss-Cross
    • Reverse Eagle Shifted Cross
    • Fake Side-Surf

    Intermediate

    • Crazy
    • Grapevine (Mabrouk)
    • Double Crazy
    • Double Crazy Back
    • Forwards Stroll
    • Backwards Stroll
    • Backwards One Foot
    • Chapi Chapo
    • X
    • X 2
    • X Jump (Crab Cross)
    • Nelson
    • Nelson Back
    • Nelson Transfer Back (X-Back)
    • Sun
    • Miniman (Small car 5 Wheels Sitting)
    • Pendulum

    Advanced

    • Alternating Cross
    • Crazy Sun
    • Mexican
    • Italian
    • Volte
    • Wiper
    • Footspin
    • Special
    • Oliver
    • Brush
    • Chicken Leg
    • Cobra
    • Butterfly

    Master

    • Rocket (Coffee Machine)
    • Backwards Rocket
    • Christie
    • Kasatchok
    • Toe Wheeling
    • Grabbed Toe Wheeling
    • Heel Wheeling
    • Grabbed Heel Wheeling
    • Screw
    • Leaf
    • Swan
    • Deckchair

    See also[edit]

    Instruction[edit]

    Both the ICP and Skate IA offer slalom instructor certification programs which develop the ability of skaters and coaches in breaking down slalom tricks. They also expand instructors’ ability in identifying and solving problems in slalom skating.

    INSTRUCTION MANUALS[EDIT]

    The Art of Falling (ISBN-13: 978-0692227374) by Naomi Grigg, a renowned freestyle slalom instructor and former champion freestyle slalom skater, was published in June 2014.

    References[edit]

    1. Jump up^http://www.worldslalomseries.com/rules/

    External links[edit]

     

  • Puck Hockey

    INLINE HOCKEY

    Home / Inline hockey

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediainline

     

    Roller in-line hockey
    A collegiate inline hockey player carrying the puck.
    Highestgoverning body USA Roller Sports
    First played 20th century United States
    Characteristics
    Contact Yes
    Team members 5 per side (including goaltender)
    Mixed gender Yes, separate competitions
    Type Team sport
    Equipment Inline hockey puck, hockey stick, inline skates, hockey helmet, elbow pads, inline hockey pants, jock (or jill for women), shin pads, mouth guard, hockey jersey, hockey gloves
    Venue Inline hockey arena
    Presence
    Country or region Worldwide
    Olympic No

    In-line hockey, commonly referred to as roller hockey, is a team sport played on a wood, asphalt, cement or sport tile surface, in which players use a hockey stick to shoot a hard plastic hockey puck into their opponent’s goal to score points.[1] It is considered a contact sport but body checking is prohibited. Inline hockey teams are composed of up to four lines of players including two forwards and two defensemen on each line. There are five players including the goalie from each team on the rink at a time. It is the goalies job to prevent the other team’s players from scoring. Teams normally consist of 16 players that sit on the bench until it is their turn to play.[2] As the name suggests it is played on inline skates.

    Inline hockey is a very fast paced and free flowing game, this is because it does not have the same rules as ice hockey. There are no blue lines or defensive zones in roller hockey unlike ice hockey. This means that, according to most rule codes, there are no offsides or icings that can occur during game play; this along with fewer players on the rink allows for faster game play.[3] There are traditionally two 20-minute periods or four 10-minute periods with a stopped clock.

    The highest governing body for the sport is USA Roller Sports which is commonly referred to as USARS. USARS is credited with the development of the present day rules and regulations that is used throughout multiple tournament series. They organize tournaments across the United States but they are not the only tournament provider. Some of the other independent tournament providers include Amateur Athletic Union, North American Roller Championships, and the Torhs 2 Hot 4 Ice tournament series.[4]

    Contents

    [hide]

    History[edit]

    Some of the earliest video evidence of the sport is newsreel footage from the Giornale Luce taken in ViennaAustria in 1938.[5] The video shows players using inline skates with five metal wheels and a front wheel brake. Each team has four skaters plus a netminder. They are using ice hockey sticks, with taped blades, and the goals closely resemble ice hockey goals of the wire-mesh type common in Europe around that time. The game is being played with a ball on a rectangular outdoor court, which appears to be asphalt.

    In the United States, the USA Roller Sports (USARS) predecessor organization was the Roller Skating Rink Operators Association (RSROA). In 1940 the RSROA published a set of roller hockey rules drawn from a booklet by the National Hockey League (NHL) which was designed to grow interest in playing hockey on roller skates. However, because of the intervention of World War II, the organization of roller hockey tournaments did not receive significant development until after this war in the late 1940s. At first skating club interest was confined to the northern tier of the United States, including the bordering Canadian cities. Puck roller hockey’s spread in popularity during that period was helped along by the attention of local commercial television, which was getting its start and in desperate need for events to fill air time. The increased interest in the sport led in 1959 to the selection of a National Puck Hockey Committee to formulate special rules for the performance of puck hockey in the variety of rink sizes available to roller skates. The American Roller Hockey Association (ARHA) was formed with Joe Spillman, a roller rink operator from San AntonioTexas as its first Commissioner. Under Spillman’s direction, the sport of hockey on roller skates grew rapidly throughout the United States.

    During the 1960 RSROA National Roller Skating Championships held in Little RockArkansas, exhibition games for ball and puck roller hockey were held. Following these Nationals, the first full competitive season officially began in North America for roller hockey. This, of course, had puck roller hockey entirely performed on quad skates, for at that time there were no in-line skates available. State and Regional competitions determined the teams that would move on to the North American Championships.

    In 1962 at Pershing Auditorium in LincolnNebraska both Ball and Puck Hockey took part in the North American Championships, with the Arcadia Wildcats from Detroit,Michigan becoming the first Puck Hockey national champions on quad skates. Inline skates were not commercially available during that era.

    On 1 September 1965, during their semi-annual board meeting, the RSROA installed puck hockey as an equal and separate division of roller hockey, which included ball hockey, a format most popular in Europe and South America. It was decided that both ball and puck hockey would compete under the same rules and award separate gold medal winners. Budd Van Roekel, RSROA president, was quoted in the January 1965 issue of Skate Magazine“We believe this move will spark further growth of our roller hockey program. While we recognize the popularity of the international ball-and-cane version of hockey, we also realize that thousands of potential United States and Canadian players are more familiar with the Canadian stick-and-puck type sport. We see no reason why the two versions of the sport cannot grow side by side.”

    The 1966 North American Championships marked the return of puck hockey after a four-year hiatus. The final game was a nail biter and the crowd appreciated the fast pace and excitement of puck hockey. The final game was between the Canadians of WindsorOntario and the Wildcats of Detroit, Michigan, the defending champions from 1962. The score seesawed between the two teams and was finally decided in favor of the Canadians with a final score of 5 to 3. The win gave the Canadian team their only gold medal for the whole North American Championships. One Canadian team player was quoted in the 1966 Fall issue of Skate Magazine, “We simply had to win the (puck) hockey championships, otherwise our fathers wouldn’t allow us to return home.”

    Another milestone occurred for puck roller hockey in 1977, when the North American Puck Hockey Championship was held in a venue away from ball hockey for the first time. The 1977 puck championships were staged in HoustonTexas to large crowds and a great amount of publicity, as fourteen newspapers and television stations covered the event. The year 1977 was also a milestone for women with this championship marking the debut of a women’s hockey national championship.

    TRANSITION FROM QUADS TO INLINE[EDIT]

    The very first inline roller hockey team to earn a USA National Championship title did so at a USA Roller Sports National Championship held in San Diego in July 1993. At the previous 1992 USARS National Championships, also staged in San Diego, the San Diego Hosers won the Senior Gold Division title wearing their customary quad roller skates. As of that time, the Hosers manager/coach Paul Chapey felt that while inline skates were obviously faster, the advantage was to quad skates because of their assumed greater maneuverability. Some teams and individual players at the 1992 Nationals had been equipped with inline skates, but perhaps had not yet mastered their new vehicles. During the ensuing year, Paul Chapey became an inline convert and the San Diego Hosers came back to the USAC/RS Nationals in 1993 entirely on inline skates and recaptured their national title. This significant event took place at least a year before all the other major roller inline hockey organizations were even in existence, including National Inline Hockey Association (NIHA), USA Hockey InLineNorth American Roller Hockey Championships(NARCh) and American Inline Roller Hockey Series (AIRHS).

    USA Roller Sports, under the auspices of Fédération Internationale de Roller Sports (FIRS), established and hosted the first World Inline Roller Hockey Championships for men at the Odeum Arena in Villa ParkIllinois (a suburb of Chicago) in 1995. USA Roller Sports established the first Inline Hockey World Championships for Juniors, again in Chicago in 1996, following the USA National Championships. The first World Inline Hockey Championships for Women occurred under sponsorship of USA Roller Sports in RochesterNew York in 2002. Since the introduction of these events, FIRS National Federations around the world have annually perpetuated inline world championships. USA (Ice) Hockey and International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF) began their men’s InLine Hockey World Championship in 1996, after the first such world championship by FIRS and has yet to organize a women’s inline hockey world tournament or one for juniors.

    In March 2002, the United States Olympic Committee (USOC) Membership and Credentials Committee officially reaffirmed that USA Roller Sports as the governing body for inline hockey in the United States, which continues to this day. This determination was based on a conclusion by the USOC that internationally the sport of inline hockey is recognized as a discipline of roller sports. Then, as now, USA Roller Sports is a member in good standing of Federation International de Roller Sports (“FIRS”), the international federation for roller sports as recognized by the International Olympic Committee, and FIRS is also recognized by the Pan American Sports Organization (PASO) as the controlling international federation for inline hockey, a sport of the Pan American Games.

    Inline roller hockey was introduced to the World Games for the first time in 2005, an International Olympic Committee (IOC) sanctioned event under the jurisdiction of the International World Games Association (IWGA), an affiliate of the General Association of International Sports Federations (GAISF). The United States won the Gold Medal, with Canada taking the Silver and Switzerland the Bronze Medal. Inline roller hockey replaced rink hockey (ball and cane) on the World Games program forDuisburgGermany at the 2005 quadrennial World Games. Rink roller hockey had been part of the World Games since its first organization in 1979 at Santa Clara,California, as have the other disciplines of roller sports.

    During the General Assembly of the IWGA, which took place in Madrid on 14 May 2003, the IWGA unanimously agreed that inline roller hockey was the responsibility of FIRS and that this variant form of roller hockey would be included on the program of the 2005 World Games in place of the previous format. This same scenario had previously played out before the Pan American Sports Organization in 1999, when inline hockey made its first appearance at the Pan American Games in Canada, and repeated again four years later in the Dominican Republic. PASO extends continued recognition of the inline hockey under the jurisdiction of FIRS.

    PROFESSIONAL INLINE HOCKEY[EDIT]

    National Roller Hockey League is a professional league, founded in 2014. The NRHL began its inaugural season 20 February 2015. The NRHL games consist of 3 15-minute periods, with 10 minute intermissions. It differs from professional ice hockey with rules like no fighting, no offsides, and no icing. The players in the NRHL pay nothing to play, with compensation opportunities available in the inaugural season.[6]

    MLRH (Major League Roller Hockey), is played in the United States and Europe. It consists of East and West Coast divisions, and the season is played from October to March with finals being held in either Europe or the USA. This is the only full check inline league in the world and it has a $10,000 championship purse. It has similar rules as the NHL, with some exceptions and only having two 17 min periods and in the “Super” League, 4 x 12 minute quarters. MLRH has offside and icing rules as well as allowing players to have a single fight per game.

    JUNIOR INLINE HOCKEY[EDIT]

    There are no junior leagues for the sport of inline hockey in the USA except for NAYRHL (North America Youth Roller Hockey League). In Ontario, Canada, they have The GLi (Great Lakes Inline) which is similar to the OHL of ice hockey and is also 21 and under. For the Junior “A” equivalent in the USA, see the American Inline Hockey League minor division. Some schools and Townships might also have leagues.

    Chief differences from ice hockey[edit]

    Although inline hockey appears, at first glance, to simply be ice hockey on inline skates, this single change ramifies through the rest of the game, resulting in important differences between the two sports.

    Inline hockey is typically played at room temperature on a surface that, rather than being made from (frozen) water, is kept dry to protect the bearings in the skate wheels. Several surface materials are used, including plastic tiles (sometimes known as sport-court flooring), wood, and sealed concrete; in general, surfaces try to balance the ability of wheels to grip against the ability of the puck to slide freely. None of these surfaces, however, are as smooth as ice; as a result, the puck is made of a much lighter plastic material, and rests on small nylon or poly-plastic nubs to reduce friction with the rink surface.

    Besides these equipment differences, inline hockey is generally a less physical sport. Most leagues punish fighting harshly, and body checking is usually a penalty. Leagues generally require players to wear full face masks, but otherwise, players tend to wear lighter clothes and less protective padding.

    There are other rules differences as well. Each team fields only four skaters (plus a goaltender), rather than ice hockey’s five. Many leagues do not stop play for icing. Offside rules are generally looser as well; originally, a few leagues would call offside only on the center line, presently, every rule book omits the rule entirely.

    Equipment[edit]

    Main article: Inline hockey equipment

    Inline hockey is a contact sport. Although body checks are usually not allowed, injuries can still be a common occurrence. Protective equipment is highly recommended and is enforced in all competitive situations. This usually includes a helmet (cage worn if certain age), elbow pads, protective gloves, athletic cup, shin pads, and skates at the very least. In addition, goaltenders use different gear, (optionally) a neck guard, chest/arm protector, blocker, catch glove, and leg pads.

    Goal Cages[edit]

    One of the most fundamental differences between the IIHF and FIRS-sanctioned versions of inline hockey lies within the dimensions of the net. The IIHF simply retains the use of ice hockey nets. However the FIRS rulebook substitutes the traditional ice hockey cage for a lower and narrower model patterned after the one used in rink hockey, the FIRS’ flagship sport, however most FIRS leagues in the United States and Canada opt for the more popular and common ice hockey nets.

    Game[edit]

    While the general characteristics of the game are the same wherever it is played, the exact rules depend on the particular code of play being used. The most important code is that of the Comité International Roller In-Line Hockey (CIRILH), an organization and discipline of the Fédération Internationale de Roller Sports (FIRS)[7]

    Inline hockey is played on an inline hockey rink. During normal play, there are five players per side on the floor at any time, one of them being the goaltender, each of whom is on inline hockey skates. The objective of the game is to score goals by shooting a hard plastic disc, the puck, into the opponent’s goal net, which is placed at the opposite end of the rink. The players may control the puck using a long stick with a blade that is commonly curved at one end.

    Players may also redirect the puck with any part of their bodies, subject to certain restrictions. Players may not hold the puck in their hand and are prohibited from using their hands to pass the puck to their teammates, unless they are in the defensive zone. Players are also prohibited from kicking the puck into the opponent’s goal, though unintentional redirections off the skate are permitted. Players may not intentionally bat the puck into the net with their hands.

    The four players other than the goaltender are typically divided into two forwards and two defencemen. The forward positions consist of a center and a winger. Thedefencemen usually stay together as a pair generally divided between left and right. A substitution of an entire unit at once is called a line change. Teams typically employ alternate sets of forward lines and defensive pairings when shorthanded or on a power play. Substitutions are permitted at any time during the course of the game, although during a stoppage of play the home team is permitted the final change. When players are substituted during play, it is called changing on the fly.

    The boards surrounding the floor help keep the puck in play and they can also be used as tools to play the puck. Players are not permitted to “bodycheck” opponents into the boards as a means of stopping progress. The referees and the outsides of the goal are “in play” and do not cause a stoppage of the game when the puck or players are influenced (by either bouncing or colliding) into them. Play can be stopped if the goal is knocked out of position. Play often proceeds for minutes without interruption. When play is stopped, it is restarted with a faceoff. Two players “face” each other and an official drops the puck to the floor, where the two players attempt to gain control of the puck. Markings on the floor indicate the locations for the “faceoff” and guide the positioning of players.

    There is one major rule of play in inline hockey that limit the movement of the puck: the puck going out of play. The puck goes “out of play” whenever it goes past the perimeter of the rink (onto the player benches, over the “glass,” or onto the protective netting above the glass) and a stoppage of play is called by the officials using whistles. It also does not matter if the puck comes back onto the playing surface from those areas as the puck is considered dead once it leaves the perimeter of the rink.

    Under FIRS rules, each team may carry a maximum of 14 players and two goaltenders on their roster. The players are usually divided into three lines of two forwards, two pairs of defenceman, and two extra skaters.

    Penalties[edit]

    Main article: Penalty (ice hockey)

    For most penalties, the offending player is sent to the “penalty box” and his team has to play with one less skater for a short amount of time. Minor penalties last for two minutes, major penalties last for five minutes, and a double minor penalty is two consecutive penalties of two minutes duration. A single Minor penalty may be extended by a further two minutes for drawing blood from the victimized player. The team that has taken the penalty is said to be playing shorthanded while the other team is on apower play.

    A two-minute minor penalty is often called for lesser infractions such as trippingelbowingroughinghigh-stickingdelay of the gametoo many players on the rink,boarding, illegal equipment, holding, interference, hookingslashing, butt-ending (striking an opponent with the knob of the stick—a very rare penalty) or cross-checking. A minor is also assessed for diving, where a player embellishes a hook or trip. More egregious fouls may be penalized by a four-minute double-minor penalty, particularly those which cause injury to the victimized player. These penalties end either when the time runs out or the other team scores on the power play. In the case of a goal scored during the first two minutes of a double-minor, the penalty clock is set down to two minutes upon a score effectively expiring the first minor penalty. Five-minute major penalties are called for especially violent instances of most minor infractions that result in intentional injury to an opponent, or when a “minor” penalty results in visible injury (such as bleeding), as well as for fighting. Major penalties are always served in full; they do not terminate on a goal scored by the other team.

    Some varieties of penalties do not always require the offending team to play a man short. Concurrent five-minute major penalties in the FIRS usually result from fighting. In the case of two players being assessed five-minute fighting majors, they both serve five minutes without their team incurring a loss of player (both teams still have a full complement of players on the floor). This differs with two players from opposing sides getting minor penalties, at the same time or at any intersecting moment, resulting from more common infractions. In that case, both teams will have only three skating players (not counting the goaltender) until one or both penalties expire (if one expires before the other, the opposing team gets a power play for the remainder); this applies regardless of current pending penalties, though in the FIRS, a team always has at least two skaters on the rink. Ten-minute misconduct penalties are served in full by the penalized player, but his team may immediately substitute another player on the floor unless a minor or major penalty is assessed in conjunction with the misconduct (a two-and-ten or five-and-ten). In that case, the team designates another player to serve the minor or major; both players go to the penalty box, but only the designee may not be replaced, and he is released upon the expiration of the two or five minutes, at which point the ten-minute misconduct begins. In addition, game misconducts are assessed for deliberate intent to inflict severe injury on an opponent (at the officials’ discretion), or for a major penalty for a stick infraction or repeated major penalties. The offending player is ejected from the game and must immediately leave the playing surface (he does not sit in the penalty box); meanwhile, if a minor or major is assessed in addition, a designated player must serve out that segment of the penalty in the box (similar to the above-mentioned “two-and-ten”). In some rare cases, a player may receive up to nineteen minutes in penalties for one string of plays. This could involve receiving a four-minute double minor penalty, getting in a fight with an opposing player who retaliates, and then receiving a game misconduct after the fight. In this case, the player is ejected and two teammates must serve the double-minor and major penalties.

    A player who is tripped, or illegally obstructed in some way, by an opponent on a breakaway – when there are no defenders except the goaltender between him and the opponent’s goal – is awarded a penalty shot, an attempt to score without opposition from any defenders except the goaltender. A penalty shot is also awarded for a defender other than the goaltender covering the puck in the goal crease, a goaltender intentionally displacing his own goal posts during a breakaway to avoid a goal, a defender intentionally displacing his own goal posts when there is less than two minutes to play in regulation time or at any point during overtime, or a player or coach intentionally throwing a stick or other object at the puck or the puck carrier and the throwing action disrupts a shot or pass play.

    Officials also stop play for puck movement violations, such as using one’s hands to pass the puck in the offensive end, but no players are penalized for these offenses. The sole exceptions are deliberately falling on or gathering the puck to the body, carrying the puck in the hand, and shooting the puck out of play in one’s defensive zone (all penalized two minutes for delay of game).

    Officials[edit]

    Main article: Official (ice hockey)

    A typical game of inline hockey has two officials on the floor, charged with enforcing the rules of the game. There are typically two referees who call goals and penalties. Due to not having offside and icing violations, there usually are no linesmen used. On-ice officials are assisted by off-ice officials who act as time keepers, and official scorers.

    Officials are selected by the league for which they work. Amateur hockey leagues use guidelines established by national organizing bodies as a basis for choosing their officiating staffs. In North America, the national organizing bodies USA Roller Sports and Canada Inline approve officials according to their experience level as well as their ability to pass rules knowledge and skating ability tests.

    Tactics[edit]

    OFFENSIVE TACTICS[EDIT]

    Main articles: Shot (hockey)SlapshotWrist shotSnap shot (ice hockey)Backhand slapshot and Extra attacker

    Offensive tactics include improving a team’s position on the floor by advancing the puck towards the opponent’s goal. FIRS rules have no offside or two-line passes. A player may pass the puck to a player on any spot on the floor. Offensive tactics, are designed ultimately to score a goal by taking a shot. When a player purposely directs the puck towards the opponent’s goal, he or she is said to “shoot” the puck.

    deflection is a shot which redirects a shot or a pass towards the goal from another player, by allowing the puck to strike the stick and carom towards the goal. A one-timer is a shot which is struck directly off a pass, without receiving the pass and shooting in two separate actions. Headmanning the puck, also known as cherry-picking, the stretch pass or breaking out, is the tactic of rapidly passing to the player farthest down the floor.

    A team that is losing by one or two goals in the last few minutes of play will often elect to pull the goalie; that is, remove the goaltender and replace him or her with anextra attacker on the floor in the hope of gaining enough advantage to score a goal. However, it is an act of desperation, as it sometimes leads to the opposing team extending their lead by scoring a goal in the empty net.

    delayed penalty call occurs when a penalty offense is committed by the team that does not have possession of the puck. In this circumstance the team with possession of the puck is allowed to complete the play; that is, play continues until a goal is scored, a player on the opposing team gains control of the puck, or the team in possession commits an infraction or penalty of their own. Because the team on which the penalty was called cannot control the puck without stopping play, it is impossible for them to score a goal, however, it is possible for the controlling team to mishandle the puck into their own net. In these cases the team in possession of the puck can pull the goalie for an extra attacker without fear of being scored on. If a delayed penalty is signaled and the team in possession scores, the penalty is still assessed to the offending player, but not served.

    One of the most important strategies for a team is their forecheck. Forechecking is the act of attacking the opposition in their defensive zone. Forechecking is an important part of roller hockey, because certain leagues and rules allow teams that have possession of the puck to sit behind their net and wait until they are pressured before having to advance the puck. Each team will use their own unique forecheck system but the main ones are: 1–1–2, 1–2–1, and 1–3. The 1–1–2 is the most basic forecheck system where one forward will go in deep and pressure the opposition’s defencemen, the second forward stays in the slot, and the two defencemen high. The 1–3 is the most defensive forecheck system where one forward will apply pressure to the puck carrier in the opponent’s zone and the other three players stand basically in a line in their defensive zone in hopes the opposition will skate into one of them.

    Roller hockey is unique in that its rules resemble more of a basketball/soccer/lacrosse strategy in many ways versus a traditional ice hockey approach.

    There are many other little tactics used in the game of hockey. Pinching is the term used when a defencemen pressures the opposition’s winger in the offensive zone when they are breaking out, attempting to stop their attack and keep the puck in the offensive zone. A saucer pass is a pass used when an opposition’s stick or body is in the passing lane. It is the act of raising the puck over the obstruction and having it land on a teammates’ stick.

    DEKE[EDIT]

    Main article: Deke (ice hockey)

    A “deke,” short for “decoy,” is a feint with the body and/or stick to fool a defender or the goalie. Due to the increased room and lack of body checking, many inline hockey players have picked up the skill of “dangling,” which is more fancy deking and requires more stick handling skills. Some of the more impressive “dekes” or “dangles” include the toe-drag, the Pavel Datsyuk, the back hand toe-drag, and the spin-o-rama.

    FIGHTS[EDIT]

    Fighting is prohibited in the rules. It does happen rarely, however. Players used to an ice hockey mentality fight to demoralize the opposing players while exciting their own, as well as settling personal scores. A fight will also break if one of the team’s skilled players gets hit hard or someone gets hit by what the team perceives as a dirty hit. Amateur recreation level players who play strictly inline hockey never consider fisticuffs a legitimate behavior. The amateur game penalizes fisticuffs more harshly, as a player who receives a fighting major is also assessed at least a 10-minute misconduct penalty or a game misconduct penalty and suspension. Most local recreation leagues also suspend or ban players who engage in fights.

    Periods and overtime[edit]

    A professional game consists of two halves of twenty minutes each, the clock running only when the puck is in play. The teams change ends for the second half, and again at the start of each overtime played (playoffs only; same ends as the second half otherwise). Some leagues such as the American Inline Hockey League (AIHL), recreational leagues and children’s leagues often play shorter games, generally with two shorter periods or three running clock periods of play.

    Various procedures are used if a game is tied. Some leagues and tournaments do not use an overtime, unless a “winner” must be determined, such as in tournamentpool play and league regular season. Others will us either one, or a combination of; sudden death overtime periods, or penalty shootouts. Usually up to two 5-minutesudden death overtimes are played; if still tied, penalty shootouts.

    Playing surface[edit]

    Indoor inline hockey is played on any suitable non-slip surface. While converted roller rinks may use wooden floors, dedicated inline hockey facilities use Sport Court or similar surface, which allows maximum traction to inline hockey wheels whilst providing a smooth, unbroken gliding surface for the puck. The playing area should be surrounded by full boards similar to ice hockey with glass or fencing to a height of around 2m. Often, especially in European countries, the game is played in indoor sports halls, on wooden floors. Therefore, there will be no standardized boards but instead the perimeter of the playing surface will be brick walls. In such cases, the corners of the hall are rounded off with added curved boards.

    Inline sledge hockey[edit]

    Main article: Sledge hockey

    Based on Ice Sledge Hockey, Inline Sledge Hockey is played to the same rules as Inline Puck Hockey (essentially ice hockey played off ice using inline skates) and has been made possible by the design and manufacture of inline sledges by RGK, Europe’s premier sports wheelchair maker.

    There is no classification points system dictating who can be involved in play within Inline Sledge Hockey unlike other team sports such as Wheelchair Basketball and Wheelchair Rugby. Inline Sledge Hockey is being developed to allow everyone, regardless of whether they have a disability or not, to complete up to World Championship level based solely on talent and ability. This makes Inline Sledge Hockey truly inclusive.

    The first game of Inline Sledge Hockey was played at Bisley, England on 19 December 2009 between the Hull Stingrays and the Grimsby Redwings. Matt Lloyd (Paralympian) is credited with inventing Inline Sledge Hockey and Great Britain is seen as the international leader in the games development.

    STREET HOCKEY[EDIT]

    Main article: Street hockey

    Street hockey is a form of inline hockey played as pick-up hockey on streets or parking lots. Street hockey tends to have very relaxed rules, as any pickup street game or sport would have.

    BLIND INLINE HOCKEY[EDIT]

    Blind Inline Hockey is also played by athletes who are totally blind or visually impaired. Sighted players can also play, as all players must play while wearing opaque goggles, making all play sightless and “evening the playing field.” The blind game is best played on a smaller, cross-floor sized surface (85′ by 60′) with the same 4 skaters-and-a-goalie as regular sighted inline hockey.

    The puck and goals each have a sounding device that enable the players to hear the puck and orient themselves to direction on the playing surface. The players constantly communicate to their teammates regarding their actions and positions on the floor enabling teamwork and playmaking. A sighted referee directs stoppages and restarts. All usual inline hockey rules apply to blind play.

    Sanctioning bodies[edit]

    There are two lines of sanctioning bodies for inline hockey: those that are related to the roller sports community and those related to the ice hockey community. TheInternational Ice Hockey Federation organizes IIHF Inline Hockey World Championships but the sport is recognized as being governed by the International Roller Sports Federation which organizes FIRS Inline Hockey World Championships.

    USA Roller Sports is sanctioned by the International Olympic Committee to oversee roller sports. See the related links below for national bodies and further information.

    Worldwide

    ·         IIHF Inline

    ·         Fédération Internationale de Roller Sports (FIRS)

    Argentina

    ·         Confederacion Argentina de Patin (CAP)

    Australia

    ·         Skate Australia

    Belgium

    ·         Belgian In-Line Hockey Federation

    Brazil

    ·         Brazil Hockey and Skating Confederation

    Canada

    ·         Metro Vancouver Roller Hockey League (MVRHL) – Greater Vancouver BC

    ·         National Inline Hockey Association (NIHA-National Governing Body) Canada

    ·         British Columbia Inline Hockey Association (BCIHA – BC Provincial Body) BC

    ·         The Hockey House – Langley BC

    ·         Vancouver Inline Hockey League (VIHL) – BC

    ·         Green Light Adventures Inline Hockey League in Chilliwack, BC Canada

    ·         Pacific Inline Championship Hockey League (PICH)

    ·         Alberta Minor Roller Hockey Association (AMRHA – Alberta Provincial Body) AB

    ·         Edmonton Inline Hockey League (EIHL) – Edmonton AB

    ·         Nipissing Inline Hockey League

    ·         Toronto Inline Hockey League (Toronto Inline)

    ·         Canada Inline (Junior National Governing Body) Canada

    ·         The official Roller Hockey Site in Quebec

    Czech Republic

    ·         Czech Asociacion Inline Hockey

    Chile

    ·         Chile Inline Hockey Federation

    Ecuador

    ·         Ecuador Hockey League

    France

    ·         French Inline Hockey Federation

    Hong Kong/China

    ·         Hong Kong/China inline Hockey Association

    Ireland

    ·         Irish Ice Hockey Association

    ·         Inline Hockey Ireland

  • Rink Hockey

    RINK HOCKEY

    Home / Rink hockey

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediarink

    Roller hockey
    Argentine player during the 2007 Rink Hockey World Championship.
    Highestgoverning body CIRH
    Nicknames Roller Hockey, Rink Hockey, Hardball Hockey, quad
    First played End-19th century Britain
    Characteristics
    Contact No
    Team members 5 per side, a goal-keeper and four field players
    Mixed gender Yes, separate competitions
    Type Team sportball sport
    Presence
    Olympic Demonstration sport at 1992 Summer Olympics.

    Roller hockey (in British English), rink hockey (in American English) or quad hockey is a team sport that enjoys significant popularity in a number of Latin countries.

    Two five-man teams (four skaters and one goalkeeper) try to drive the ball with their sticks into the opponents’ goal. The ball can only be put in motion by a stick. The game has two 25-minute halves (for adults), with the clock stopping when the ball becomes dead. Each team has a one-minute timeout in each half. Each team has a minimum of six players (a backup goalie is required) and a maximum of ten.

    Players use quad skates, whereas inline skates are used in inline hockey. Excessive contact between players is forbidden in rink hockey, unlike inline hockey.

    Roller Hockey was a demonstration rollersport in the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona. There have been 42 editions of the FIRS Roller Hockey World Cup, with Latin countries dominating the sport since the 1940s: Spain (16 World titles), Portugal (15 World titles), Argentina (5 World titles) and Italy (4 World titles). Other countries, such asFranceBrazilGermanySwitzerlandAndorra and England are regular international competitors, but rarely overcome the traditional powers.

    Roller Hockey is a very fast sport, which may create a problem for TV transmissions, and new rinks are built using blue or white pavement to make the ball more visible on TV.

    The most important clubs in Europe (and, arguably, the world) are SL BenficaFC Porto, and OC Barcelos from Portugal, FC BarcelonaReus DeportiuIgualada HC and Liceo La Coruña from Spain, and occasionally Primavera PratoFollonica and Bassano Hockey 54 from Italy. In terms of trophies won FC Barcelona is the most successful team having won 21 European Cups.

    SL Benfica is the oldest roller hockey club in the world, having played its first game in 1917.

    The 2013 Roller Hockey World Cup took place in Angola, for the first time on the African continent, won by Spainbeing the country with most victories in history.

    Contents

    [hide]

    Name[edit]

    Roller Hockey (Quad) was recently referred to as Hardball Hockey in the United States until November 2008 when the USOC adopted the sport’s more common name, Rink Hockey. Other names for the sport include Hardball Roller Hockey, Ball Hockey, International Style Ball hockey, International hockey, Quad Hockey, Hockey, English Roller Hockey, Hockey Sobre Patines, Hockey pista, Hóquei em patins, Hockey Skids, Traditional Hockey, Cane Hockey, Rollhockey, Rolhockey, Hokej na koturaljkama, Rulleskøjtehockey and Rulluisuhoki.

    The rink[edit]

    A RINKthe-rink

    The rink has usually a polished wooden surface, but any flat, non-abrasive and non-slippery material such as treated cement is acceptable. Likewise, it is allowed for rink owners to put advertisements in the playing area, as long as they don’t interfere with ball or skate motion, which includes both physically (must be at exactly the same level as the remaining area) and visually (dark colours or any other pattern which can mask the ball).

    It can have one out of three standard sizes (a minimum of 34×17 meters, an average of 40×20 and a maximum of 44×22) or any size between the minimum and maximum values that has a 2:1 size ratio with a 10% margin of error.

    The rink has rounded corners (1 m radius) and is surrounded by a 1 m wall. The wall also has a wooden base 2 cm wide and at least 20 cm high. Behind the goals there is a 4 m high net, even if there are no stands (to avoid the ball bouncing back from a wall and hitting a player). If the ball hits the net, it’s considered to be out of bounds.

    The markings are simple. The halfway line divides the rink into halves, and 22 m from the end wall an “anti-play” line is painted. The area is a 9 X 5.40 m rectangle, placed from 2.7 to 3.3 m ahead of the end table. It has a protection area for goalkeepers, a half-circle with 1.5 m radius. All markings are 8 cm in width. The goal (painted in fluorescent orange) is 105 cm high by 170 cm wide. Inside the goal there is a thick net and a bar close to ground to trap the ball inside (before, two extra referees stayed behind the goal to judge goal decisions), and 92 cm deep. While not attached to the ground, it is extremely heavy to prevent movement.

    Equipment[edit]

    Roller Hockey Goal PadEqu1

     

    Roller-hockey-(Quad)-Goal Chestequ2

     

    Roller-hockey-(Quad)-Goal elbowequ3

     

    Roller-hockey-(Quad)-Goal Neck ProtectorEqu4

     

    Roller-hockey-(Quad)-Goal StickEqu5

     

    Roller-hockey-(Quad)-Player StickEqu6

     

    Roller-hockey-(Quad)-Player Gloves & KneeEqu7

     

    Roller Hockey (Quad) Ball

    • The clothing is similar to that used inAssociation football—socks up to the knee, shorts and a shirt.
    • Sticks are different for skaters and goalkeepers. They can be of any material approved by the CIRH (although wooden sticks are still most often used), with a minimum length of 90 cm and maximum of 115 cm. They cannot be wider than 5 cm or weigh over 500 g.
    • The ball is made ofvulcanized rubber, has a 23 cm in circumference, and weighs 155 g.
    • The skates must have two pairs of wheels, with a minimum diameter of 3 cm. Players are allowed to use brakes in the front of the skate, with a diameter or larger side not larger than 5 cm.
    • Protective material includes shin guards, knee caps, jock strap and gloves. Specifications for helmets and elbow caps vary from federation to federation.
    • Goalkeepers (or netminders) use protective padding on the torso (plus shoulders) (the maximum amount is being regulated, since, as inice hockey, many goalkeepers have been using massive protection to make them larger and broader), neck guard, large shin guards (not longer than 75 cm), gloves protecting the whole forearm and a helmet with either a grid or unbreakable transparent material. Unlike the Roller Hockey (Inline) Goalie who uses a Catch Glove to catch the shot on goal, the Roller hockey (Quad) Goalie uses a flat batting glove that provides rebound characteristics when blocking a shot on goal.

    Rules[edit]

    History[edit]

    The first recorded Hardball Roller Hockey game was played in 1878 at the Denmark Rink in London, England.[1][2][3] It was first known as “roller polo” due to the introduction of Polo in 1876, skaters took polo to the rinks.[2][4] The sport was introduced into the United States in 1882 with the formation of the National Roller Polo League in DaytonOhio, with teams in seven cities. Roller Polo League[2] In 1884 the Massachusetts Roller Polo league was operating with 14 teams[2] Organized roller skating sports developed as the popularity of roller skates increased in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Roller hockey teams were playing throughout Europe as early as 1901.[5] Roller Hockey was played by the famous silent film stars, Stan Laurel and Charlie Chaplin, in the early 1900s.[6] The first World Championships in roller hockey were held in 1936 in StuttgartGermany.[5]

    Rink Hockey as it was called in Europe was not organized by the RSROA in the United States until 1959 and name roller hockey[2] The sport debuted at the US National Championships in 1961.[7] The Pan American Games introduced roller skating as a sport in 1979 and debuted roller hockey the same year.[1] It was one of thePan American Games sports in 1979, 1987, 1991 and 1995. It has since been discontinued. Roller hockey was present as an exhibition sport at the 1992 Summer Olympics in BarcelonaSpain.[8][9][10]

    Governing bodies[edit]

    The authority of FIRS is recognized by the following organizations:

    FIRS recognizes the following continental confederations:

    FIRS recognizes the following International Technical Committees:

    Each continental confederation comprises or recognizes, in turn, various national governing bodies and associations.

    International competitions[edit]

    There are several international competitions with national teams. There are three world championships, one for men, the FIRS Roller Hockey World Cup, one for women, the FIRS Women’s Roller Hockey World Cup and the FIRS Roller Hockey World Cup U-20.

    AFRICA[EDIT]

    AMERICA[EDIT]

    ASIA[EDIT]

    EUROPE[EDIT]

    Domestic competitions[edit]

    AFRICA[EDIT]

    ·         Angola

    ·         Egypt

    ·         Mozambique

    ·         South Africa

    AMERICA[EDIT]

    ·         Argentina

    ·         Brazil

    ·         Chile

    ·         Colombia

    ·         Mexico

    ·         Uruguay

    ·         USA

    ASIA[EDIT]

    ·         India

    ·         Japan

    ·         Pakistan

    EUROPE[EDIT]

    ·         Austria

    ·         Belgium

    ·         England

    ·         France

    ·         Germany

    ·         Italy

    ·         Israel

    ·         Netherlands

    ·         Portugal

    ·         Spain

    ·         Switzerland

    OCEANIA[EDIT]

    ·         Australia

    ·         New Zealand

    Women’s roller hockey[edit]

      This section requires expansion.(September 2012)

    See also[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. ^Jump up to:a b http://www.rollerskatingmuseum.com/hockey.htm
    2. ^Jump up to:a b c d e http://usarollersports.org/pages/pdf/magazine/USARS_Summer1978_Web.pdf
    3. Jump up^http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/507126/roller-skating/255268/Roller-sports#ref=ref887928
    4. Jump up^http://www.rollerskating.org/displaycommon.cfm?an=1&subarticlenbr=2
    5. ^Jump up to:a b http://www.jtaa.org/Roller_Hockey/History%20of%20Roller%20Hockey.htm
    6. Jump up^http://hardballhockey.blogspot.com/2008/03/roller-hockey-for-dummies-by-linda.html
    7. Jump up^http://www.rollerskatingmuseum.com/homework_help.htm
    8. Jump up^http://www.la84foundation.org/6oic/OfficialReports/1992/1992s4.pdf
    9. Jump up^http://worldcat.org/oclc/60284428
    10. Jump up^[Roller hockey at the 1992 Summer Olympics]

    External links[edit]

    INTERNATIONAL[EDIT]

    OTHER[EDIT]

     

  • Roller Speed Skating

    ed from racing on traditional roller skates, the sport is similar enough to ice speed skating that many competitors are now known to switch between inline and ice speed skating according to the season.

    Skate[edit]

    An inline speed skate is a specialized shoe version of the inline skate. The boot or shoe is close-fitting, without much padding and usually made of leather and carbon fiber and/or fiberglass composites. For best performance, the boot must conform closely to the shape of the foot, so most inline speed skating boots are heat-moldable, which allows the user to re-shape the boots to some extent when heat is applied (by placing the boots in oven at 185 °F (85 °C) for 15 minutes after taking off the wheels, frames, and straps/buckles). It is also quite common to have boots custom-made for improved fit. [1]

    Speed skating boots are low-cut and offer little ankle support, allowing the skater extra ankle movement. Skin blisters due to friction can be a problem, and common solutions include: neoprene or silicone “ankle bootee” such as “Ezeefit” or “Bunga Pads”, double thin synthetic socks, smaller boots, improving technique, re-moulding the boots, sports tape, and use of “advanced healing” plasters to help recovery.

    The frame (sometimes called the chassis or plate) which holds the wheels is made of aircraft-quality aluminum, magnesium, and new developments in technology have allowed Carbon fiber. Frames flex during skating, and the amount of flex can be a personal factor in which one to choose. Very “stiff” frames are usually favoured by heavy skaters. A frame which is too stiff for a particular skater may feel unstable on corners, and a frame that is not stiff enough will be slower. Frame stiffness also works along with boot and wheel stiffness, so there are endless possible variations. A light frame is desirable. Ideal frame length is affected by foot size and wheel size. A slightly shorter frame is often preferred for the tight curves of smaller tracks but is slower. A longer frame is faster but much harder to turn.

    The frame position can usually be adjusted with respect to the skate, to adjust for a skater’s individual foot, ankle and leg characteristics. The typical Inline mounting is 195mm, which is different from the ice mounting of 165mm. The frame usually mounts three, four, or five polyurethane wheels. The three wheel frames are used by skaters with small feet, otherwise 4 wheel frames are commonly used, with 90 mm to 110 mm diameter wheels. Five-wheel frames with smaller wheel have lost favor. Each wheel contains two ball bearings with an aluminum spacer, held in place with an axle screwed into the frame.

    Larger wheels require better skating technique, so skaters generally progress upwards in wheel size as they gain experience. “Hi-Lo” arrangements are also available, which usually have three larger wheels and one smaller wheel under the ball of the foot, allowing a lower and shorter overall frame design.

    Harder wheels minimize elastic hysteresis energy absorption, due to skater’s weight deforming the solid polyurethane “tyre”. So, speed skaters tend to select the hardest possible wheels, with the highest polyurethane durometer for their skating condition, limited by either wheel slip or surface roughness. Durometer selection is also affected by skater weight, and temperature. Wheels for indoor use are hardest with a durometer of 88–97. They tend to last well, but can be easily damaged if used outdoors. Wheels for outdoor use are softer with a durometer of 82–87, and tend to wear more quickly. Harder outdoor wheels can also be used effectively indoors. Skaters sometimes combine different hardness wheels on the same skate in an attempt to achieve the best combination.

    Skaters also refer to wheel “rebound”. This refers to the relative height to which a dropped wheel rebounds. It is a reasonable comparative indicator of the relative energy absorbed by elastic hysteresis of a wheel during skating.

    Bearing sizes have been standardized around the popular 608 series. A smaller and lighter 688 series has had limited acceptance. Bearing manufacturing precision generally run from ABEC-1 to ABEC-11, and some skate bearings are additionally designed to be “loose” to minimize ball rolling friction.

    Various grades of steel offer better hardness, rust resistance etc. Bearings with ceramic balls (and races) have been available since the late 1990s, They are lighter and longer lasting, however significantly more expensive. Black silicon nitride ceramic is superior to white zirconium dioxide ceramic, since it is considerably harder and tougher. At the modest rotational speeds encountered in skates, manufacturer data suggests negligible difference in friction performance between the various bearing materials. At these speeds, ball bearing friction tends to be dominated by seals and lubricants.

    Bearing shields reduce the entry of dirt into the bearing. Metal and rubber non-contact shields are commonly used, of which rubber shields are slightly more effective. Neither shield type is totally effective, often resulting in the need for bearing maintenance. The ball retainer is usually made of either metal, plastic, or glass. Plastic types are preferred since they are quieter.

    Bearing lubrication is usually either light oil or grease. Synthetic types last longer before breaking down. Grease assists in holding dirt away, and stays in the bearing longer, reducing maintenance and increasing bearing life. The lifetime of bearings used for outdoor speed skating is often quite limited due to damage caused by dirt ingress.

    In search of the maximum speed the principal goal is to minimize wind resistance, hence the use of skinsuits, special helmets and techniques. The second issue iselastic hysteresis energy absorption in the wheel. The distant third is bearing internal friction, a set of bearings in good condition, properly inserted and lubricated is normally enough.

    Technique and control[edit]techniq

    Competitors warming up before a race.

    Mechanically, strokes in speed skating are deeper and faster (to a sharper angle, closer to the point of losing traction) than recreational skating but not as deep or as fast as in ice speed skating. This is because of the greater frictional forces in the direction of travel and lesser ability to apply friction without slipping of wheels on a hard surface compared to a steel blade on ice.

    Speedskaters move each foot across the center line of travel, leading to the double push a method named by United States skaterChad Hedrick(This is a normal efficient skate technique that is learned as skater gets comfortable with skates). The technique allows two pushes in each stroke of the skate. However, it can be tiring for inexperienced skaters who have improper technique and they will often save it until needed, such as the latter stages or final sprint of a distance race. With proper execution, the double push is an energy saver. The double push is mostly used in outdoor racing and the straightaways of indoor skating.

    Turning is significantly more difficult with inline speed skates than recreational skates because of more and larger wheels, creating a longer wheelbase. The wheel profile, that is, the cross-section, is parabolic, with a sharper shape than recreational or aggressive wheels, allowing the skater to essentially skate on a smaller, and hence more agile, wheel when leaned over in a turn.

    Brakes are not generally used on speed skates so various other techniques to slow down are used, such as slaloming (skating s-curves) or v-plowing (or “snow-plowing”), where the heels are pushed outward and the toes inward. It is not readily obvious to an observer from a skater’s stance that the skater is v-plowing, if it were the skater would quickly crash. The v-plow is often the stop used in situations where there is little lateral and forward room to stop. One technique is the T-stop, essentially dragging one foot perpendicular to and behind the other, however this wears the wheels of that skate quickly. Another stop involves picking up one foot and setting it down quickly and repeatedly somewhat perpendicular to the forward motion while keeping weight on the other foot. Hockey stops are possible on speed skates, but require a very deep lean in order to cause the wheels to lose traction and slide, also the fact that wheels are sliding means that the wheels are also wearing down very quickly. Grass runouts are always a last option, given an adjacent grassy area.

    An inline speedskater takes much time to stop and often has still fewer options in an emergency, often taking several hundred feet on a level surface to come to a stop at a full, controlled deceleration. Thus, a skater should be familiar with and proficient in stopping techniques before attempting difficult situations such as heavily travelled roads or hills.

    Tactics[edit]

    Tactics in outdoor inline racing are similar to those of marathon ice speed skating and of road bicycle racing. Skaters tend to form packs or “pacelines” (also called “pelotons”) in which skaters line up behind a lead skater, thereby saving energy by skating in his draft. Sportsmanship requires that skaters in the paceline share the duty as paceline leader. Those who never “take a pull” at the front will likely find other skaters tactically working together to defeat them.

    During the course of a race skaters may make “attacks”, speeding up the pace in an effort to weed out the weaker and slower competition. These attacks may include “breakaways” and “fliers”, in which skaters try to create new smaller and faster packs or else to escape entirely from the other skaters. Depending on the length of the race and the skills and the cooperative effort of the chasers, these breakaways may or may not prove successful. If a skater escapes a pack in order to join a successful breakaway group, it is known as “bridging up”.

    When skaters who are member of teams participate in a race together, they often have pre-determined roles. One or two would be designated attackers whose role it is to tire out the competition. Another skater may be the designated winner for the team, and he may avoid chasing any breakaways until late in a race, possibly until the final sprint if the lead pack has never broken up.

    Quad speed skating[edit]

    Conventional roller-skating racing is still a recognized discipline within the realm of roller sports. Although participation has significantly declined, the sport holds national championship competition in the United States at the inline speedskating national championships.

    Quad roller-skating racing is the precursor to the popularity and acclaim received by competitive racing on in-line skates. Up until 1991 all World Championships were held on quad skates. Most events at the 1992 World Championships were specific to quads, however, some events were classed as “open” giving the athlete the option of choosing either quads or in-lines. The same criteria was applied for the 1993 World Championships. In 1994 all events were declared as “open”. Despite this it had soon become evident that in-lines were predominantly quicker than quads on all surfaces and all tracks and to this end athletes opted for in-lines over quads, as is still the case today.

    Race venues and formats[edit]

    Inline speed skating races are held in a variety of formats and on a variety of surfaces.

    Indoor races are most common in the United States, which has a long tradition of racing on skates at rinks. The competitions are generally held at roller skating rinks with plastic coated wood floors and less commonly, a plastic coated cement floor. The track is about 100 m in circumference. At USARS (USA Roller Sports) events, tracks are marked by four pylons set in a parabolic oval, while at NIRA (National Inline Racing Association) events, tracks are marked by multiple pylons that create an oval shaped track. Events, or meets, are typically structured so that members of numerous age groups race in three or four distances. For the more populous divisions, there may be a number of heats in order to qualify for the final race. To some extent, indoor inline races are similar to short track speed skating.

    Outdoor races may be held on regular pavement on city streets or park roads, or they may be held at specialized venues similar to velodromes, sometimes calledpatinodromes. A patinodrome is generally about 200 m in circumference and may be surfaced with asphalt, concrete or similar material. The curves may be banked. Such specialized skating tracks are relatively common in Europe but rare in the United States. The international governing body for World Roller Sports, Federation Internationale de Roller Sports (FIRS) and its technical committee, Committee International de Course (CIC), are making strides to commonise tracks used specifically for World Championships that have the same size, shape and surface. Plans for such tracks are available from FIRS upon request.

    Race formats include:

    Time trials

    Held “against the clock”, each skater races individually or in pairs over a distance of 100 m to 300 m, attempting to establish the best time. Time trials are occasionally held over longer distances, but they are very physically demanding and not popular.

    Sprints

    Skating in small groups of about a half dozen over a distance of 300 m to 1000 m, skaters advance in a series of heats to a final round.

    Elimination races

    In these moderate-distance races, also known as last man out, the hindmost skater is eliminated from the competition each time the pack of skaters complete a lap or when they complete certain specified lap numbers. At one or two laps to before the finish, the group has usually been pared down to four or five skaters. At this point the first across the finish line is the winner.

    Points races

    In these moderate-distance races, the first, second and third skaters to cross the start/finish line at certain specified laps are awarded points. Laps late in the race are worth more points, with the final lap worth the most points of all. It is possible to win a points race without actually being the first to cross the finish line at the end.

    Points-elimination races

    A combination of elimination races and points races.

    Relays

    Relay events include teams of two to four skaters each. Indoor meets may include “mixed” relay events in which teams have either one female and one male OR two females and two males, but outdoor relays (usually held on tracks) are usually if not always single-sex events. In a mix relay, it is traditional that a female goes to the starting line as the first skater to race.

    Criterium races

    Instead of racing a specified distance or number laps, the skaters skate for a certain amount of time, then plus a (small) number of laps. The time is typically between 15 and 45 minutes, after which a bell is rung and the skaters informed the race is over when they skate one or two more laps around the course. The portion of the race skated after the bell is rung is known as the bell lap (or laps).

    Distance races

    Although events such as points-elimination races and criteriums may cover a distance of 10 to 25 km, a distance race usually refers to a race over a set distance of about 5 km or longer and without specialized points or elimination rules. The event may be truly point-to-point or may held on a repeating course with a circumference of at least 1 km. Distance races are often marketed to the general populace and not just to members of inline racing clubs.

    Marathons

    Lately there is a new movement of skaters bringing big masses to events, this events are the skate marathons, 42.195 kilometres (26.219 mi). The most popular marathons in the USA are: The The North Shore Marathon and Saint Paul Inline Marathon, however they are now taking place all over the world including theGoodwood Roller Marathon in the UK. These races gain more popularity everyday as skaters form friendships and bonds at these events.

    Ultra Marathons

    Ultra Marathons draw large numbers, given the time needed to complete such events, one could say that they are the equivalent to a running marathon, this events were very popular in the late 1990s but declined after the year 2001, there is a new movement of people keeping this events alive and bringing them back to the forefront of the speed skating world.

    There are two very old and popular Ultra Marathons in the USA:

    1. The New York City Skate Marathon And NY 100KThe New York City Skate Marathon & NY 100K on its 17th year this event has drawn the best skaters in the world such as Chad Hedrick and Derek Parra.
    2. Athens to Atlanta Road Skate (The A2A)[1] This is the longest running point to point event in the USA with a maximum distance of 86.7 miles (139.5 km).

    In the early days of inline racing, sponsors of distance races were often also running event organizers, and the races they organized were commonly the same distances as those of running races, about 5–10 km. By the mid-1990s such events were proving to not be very popular and in the United States, where sales of inline skates were also beginning to slip, there was a decline in participation at races. However, at about that time in Europe, where inline skate sales were beginning to rise, race sponsors began to regularly organize longer events, particularly inline marathons. Such events proved to be enormously popular among fitness skaters, with some events such as the Berlin Inline Marathon (with more than 11.000 at its peak) and the Engadin Inline Marathon in St. Moritz, Switzerland, regularly attracting over 5000 skaters each year.

    In about 2000 American event sponsors followed suit, and inline half-marathons and marathons were scheduled more and more frequently around the country. As in Europe the events proved a big draw with fitness skaters looking for events which would give their training a focus. However, by 2005 this surge was tempered as some major events were either postponed for a year or cancelled permanently. In the United States the most popular inline marathon has continued to be theNorthShore Inline Marathon in Duluth, Minnesota.

    In 1999, a team of six British men led by Paul Robinson skated from Land’s End to John O’Groats, a distance of 886 miles (1,426 km). This is the only known long-distance skating event held in the world to date.

    Dryland triathlons

    Occasionally organized by triathlon sponsors, these events substitute inline skating for the swimming component of the race. These events were infrequent even during the mid-1990s boom in inline skating participation. Today they are rare to non-existent.

    Downhill races

    An event most popular in the Alpine countries of Europe, these races are timed events down a steep course. The use of concrete bobsleigh courses in summertime is not uncommon. Racers usually skate alone and the event commonly uses the best time of two heats to establish the winner. Downhill inline racers usually wear skates much more like “regular” inline skates than inline speed skates, along with extensive body covering and protective gear, and strong helmets. They may reach speeds of up to 130 km/h. The International Inline Downhill Association (IIDA) [2] is the largest organization for inline downhill racing, holding races on several continents.

     

    WORLD CHAMPIONSHIPS[EDIT]

    Year Road Track Country City Nations      
    1937 *    Italy Monza Men Only      
    1938 *    Italy Ferrara Men Only      
    1938   *  United Kingdom London Men Only      
    1948 *    Italy Monfalcone Men Only      
    1949 *    Italy Ferrara Men Only      
    1949   *  Portugal Lisbon Men Only      
    1951 *    Italy Monfalcone Men Only      
    1953 *    Italy Venice-Lido        
    1954   *  Italy Bari        
    1956   *  Spain Barcelona        
    1957 *    Italy Palermo        
    1958 *    Italy Finale Ligure        
    1960 *    Belgium Wetteren        
    1961   *  Spain Voltrega        
    1961 *    France Gujan Mestras        
    1962   *  Italy Venice-Lido        
    1963 *    France Nantes        
    1964 *    Spain Madrid        
    1965 *    Belgium Wetteren        
    1965   *  Italy Siracusa        
    1966 *    Argentina Mar del Plata Men Only      
    1967   *  Spain Barcelona Women Only      
    1968 *    Italy Alte Montecchio        
    1969   *  Argentina Mar del Plata Men Only      
    1975 *    Italy Sesto San Giovanni        
    1978   *  Argentina Mar del Plata        
    1979 * *  Italy Como/Finale Emilia        
    1980 * *  New Zealand Masterton        
    1981 * *  Belgium Leuven/Ostende        
    1982 * *  Italy Finale Emilia        
    1983   *  Argentina Mar del Plata        
    1984 *    Colombia Bogota        
    1985   *  United States Colorado Springs        
    1986 *    Australia Adelaide        
    1987   *  France Grenoble        
    1988 *    Italy Cassano d´Adda        
    1989   *  New Zealand Hastings    Australia  United States  Italy
    1990 *    Colombia Bello 14  Italy  United States  Colombia
    1991   *  Belgium Ostende    United States    
    1992 *    Italy Roma    United States  Italy  Australia
    1993   *  United States Colorado Springs    United States    
    1994 * *  France Gujan Mestras    United States  France  Italy
    1995 * *  Australia Perth    United States    
    1996 * *  Italy Padua/Scaltenigo    United States    
    1997 * *  Argentina Mar del Plata    United States    
    1998 * *  Spain Pamplona    United States    
    1999 * *  Chile Santiago    United States    
    2000 * *  Colombia Barrancabermeja 31  Colombia  United States  Chile
    2001 * *  France Valence d´Agen    United States  France  Spain
    2002   *  Belgium Ostende    Colombia  Italy  United States
    2003 * *  Venezuela Barquisimeto    United States  Colombia  Italy
    2004 * *  Italy L’Aquila 39  Colombia  Italy  United States
    2005 * *  China Suzhou 31  Colombia  United States  Italy
    2006 * *  South Korea Anyang 46  Colombia  South Korea  New Zealand
    2007 * *  Colombia Cali 42  Colombia  South Korea  United States
    2008 * *  Spain Gijon 57  Colombia  South Korea  United States
    2009 * *  China Haining Official Website 42  South Korea  Colombia  Chinese Taipei
    2010 * *  Colombia Guarne 34  Colombia  South Korea  United States
    2011 * *  South Korea Yeosu Official Website    Colombia  South Korea  Chinese Taipei
    2012 * *  Italy Ascoli Piceno 34  Colombia  Italy  South Korea
    2013 * *  Belgium Ostend 51  Colombia  Italy  Belgium
    2014 * *  Argentina Rosario 50  Colombia  France  Chinese Taipei

    Olympic status[edit]

    Attempts by the world governing body for roller sports, the International Roller Sports Federation (FIRS), to gain Olympic status for any of its disciplines were distinctly insufficient in the closing decades of the 20th century. Most notably, it failed to capitalize when rink hockey (a form of roller hockey) ppeared as a demonstration sport at the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona.

    Efforts by FIRS to obtain Olympic status became more coherent in about 2000, with inline speed skating promoted as the roller sport best suited for the Olympics. However, the federation faces competition from approximately 20 other sports also seeking entry into the Olympics, while at the same time the president of theInternational Olympic ommittee has expressed a desire to reduce the size of the summer Olympic Games. Roller sports was a candidate sport for the 2016 Summer Olympics, following the drop f baseball and softball, but the Olympic Committee eventually chose rugby sevens and golf instead.

    Notably, roller speed or in-line speed skating has been an included sport at the World Games since their inception in 1981.

    World records[edit]

    TRACK[EDIT]

    Male
    Distance (m) Skater Time Date Place
    300 Andres Jimenez  Colombia 23.415 15 November 2015 Kaohsiung (Taiwan)
    500 Simon Albrecht  Germany 38.601 29 July 2014 Geisingen (Germany)
    1000 Bart Swings  Belgium 1:20.923 28 August 2013 Oostende (Belgium)
    1500 G. De Persio  Italy 2:07.770 1 August 1980 Finale Emilia (Italy)
    2000 R. Kloess  Germany 2:54.560 28 August 1980 Inzell, Germany
    3000 Giuseppe De Persio  Italy 4:21.764 1 August 1980 Finale Emilia (Italy)
    5000 Mirko Giupponi  Italy 7:34.938 29 August 1987 Grenoble (France)
    10000 Peter Michael  New Zealand 13:47.219 April 2015 Giesingen (Germany)
    15000 Peter Michael  New Zealand 22:02.458 25 August 2013 Oostende (Belgium)
    20000 Paolo Bomben  Italy 30:52.792 29 August 1987 Grenoble (France)
    30000 T. Rossi  Italy 47:42.820 29 August 1987 Grenoble (France)
    50000 T. Rossi  Italy 1:20:17.736 29 August 1987 Grenoble (France)
    Updated August 25, 2013

     

    Female
    Distance (m) Skater Time Date Place
    300 Yersy Puello Ortiz  Colombia 25.993 23 August 2013 Oostende (Belgium)
    500 Paola Segura  Colombia 43.586 25 August 2013 Oostende (Belgium)
    1000 Barbara Fischer  Germany 1:27.060 28 August 1988 Inzell (Germany)
    1500 Marisa Canafoglia  Italy 2:14.644 27 August 1987 Grenoble (France)
    2000 Nicola Malmstrom  Germany 3:02.025 28 August 1988 Inzell (Germany)
    3000 Marisa Canafoglia  Italy 4:38.464 29 August 1987 Grenoble (France)
    5000 Marisa Canafoglia  Italy 7:48.508 30 August 1987 Grenoble (France)
    10000 Marisa Canafoglia  Italy 15:58.022 30 August 1987 Grenoble (France)
    15000 Laura Lardani  Italy 23:47.549 19 September 2009 Haining (China)
    20000 Annie Lambrechts  Belgium 32:53.970 28 June 1985 Leuven (Belgium)
    30000 Annie Lambrechts  Belgium 49:15.906 28 June 1985 Leuven (Belgium)
    50000 Annie Lambrechts  Belgium 1:21:26.942 28 June 1985 Leuven (Belgium)
    100000 Helle Carlsen  Denmark 3:31:58 September 1998 New York (USA)
    Updated May 2009

    ROAD[EDIT]

    Male
    Distance (m) Skater Time Date Place
    200 Joseba Fernandez  Spain 15.879 12 September 2012 S. Benedetto Tronto (Italy)
    300 Andres Felipe Muñoz  Colombia 23.628 21 March 2010 Gijon(Spain)
    500 Joey Mantia  United States 38.660 7 September 2006 Anyang (Korea)
    1000 Ippolito Sanfratello  Italy 1:17.757 17 June 1999 Padua (Italy)
    1500 Chad Hedrick  United States 1:57.698 17 June 1999 Padua (Italy)
    2000 Derek Downing  United States 2:40.658 17 June 1999 Padua (Italy)
    3000 Fabio Marangoni  Italy 4:18.379 17 June 1999 Padua (Italy)
    5000 Arnaud Gicquel  France 6:43.900 30 July 2003 Padua (Italy)
    10000 Joey Mantia  United States 13:46.801 6 September 2006 (Korea)
    15000 Chad Hedrick  United States 22:11.960 2 August 2000 Barrancabermeja (Colombia)
    20000 Joey Mantia  United States 29:01.955 7 September 2006 Anyang (Korea)
    30000 Derek Downing  United States 48:42.179 28 August 1997 Road Rash Nationals (USA)
    42195 (marathon) Bart Swings  Belgium 58:10 — 27 September 2014 Berlin (Germany)
    50000 Maurizio Lollobrigida  Italy 1:21:29.102 28 August 1997 Grenoble (France)
    84390 Luca Presti  Italy 2:14:37.000 3 November 1999 Santiago (Chile)
    100000 Philippe Boulard  France 2:55:55 September 1998 New York (USA)
    Updated September 2014

     

    Female
    Distance (m) Skater Time Date Place
    200 Moya Maria Jose  Chile 17.74 12 September 2012 S.Benedetto Tronto (Italy)
    300 Andrea González  Argentina 26.791 26 July 1999 Winnipeg (Canada)
    500 Jennifer Caicedo  Colombia 43.478 7 September 2006 Anyang (Korea)
    1000 Marisa Canafoglia  Italy 1:28.014 28 August 1987 Grenoble (France)
    1500 Marisa Canafoglia  Italy 2:14.122 28 August 1987 Grenoble (France)
    2000 Luz Mery Tristán  Colombia 3:07.040 12 November 1990 Bello (Colombia)
    3000 Francesca Monteverde  Italy 4:55.506 29 August 1987 Grenoble (France)
    5000 Simona Di Eugenio  Italy 7:40.530 30 July 2003 Padua (Italy)
    10000 S. Posada  Argentina 15:25.164 9 June 2006 Anyang (Korea)
    15000 Sheila Herrero  Spain 24:57.820 2 August 2000 Barrancabermeja (Colombia)
    20000 Seul Lee  South Korea 31.58.007 9 September 2008 Gijon (Spain)
    21097 (1/2 marathon) Adelia Marra  Italy 35:02.930 28 August 1987 Pamplona (Spain)
    30000 Marisa Canafoglia  Italy 52:38.640 28 August 1987 Grenoble (France)
    40000 Sheila Herrero  Spain 1:18:01.000 3 October 1999 Santiago (Chile)
    42195 (marathon) Manon Kamminga  Netherlands 1:09:58 — 28 September 2013 Berlin (Germany)
    50000 Marisa Canafoglia  Italy 1:28:16.852 28 August 1987 Grenoble (France)
    Updated September 2013

     

Join our club

Contact us today if you are interested in finding out more about our club either as a student, player, official, coach or volunteer.

Get in touch

Sponsors & Partners